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Adipose Tissue Involvement in Alcohol-Induced Liver Inflammation in Human : Study of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines and Adipokines.

2014-07-24 14:23:41 | BioPortfolio

Summary

The histological characteristics of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) related to overweight and obesity suggest the presence of partly common physiopathological mechanisms. We reported that the ponderal overload was an independent risk factor of alcoholic cirrhosis. The adipose tissue was considered for a long time as a simple place of storage of fat. However, it is now recognized that the adipose tissue can secrete cytokines called adipokines.

The adipose tissue can secrete others cytokines such as TNF α, lL6, IL10 and IL1-Ra. Increase in the production of the leptin and TNFα by the adipose tissue after alcohol administration in the rat, as well as the role of leptin in inflammation and liver fibrogenesis in the murine model of chemical hepatotoxicity strongly suggest that activation of adipocytes by alcohol can explain the strong correlation observed between the body mass index (BMI) and the severity of ethanol-induced liver injury. Conversely, it was suggested in a murine model that the reduction in adiponectin production would sensitize the liver with the toxicity of alcohol. The PPAR α and γ are the receptors which play a role both in inflammation and glucid and lipid metabolism. Taking into account the inhibiting role of PPAR α on the proliferation of the hepatic stellate cells, responsible for the fibrosis, the PPARs could also be implied in the relation between the overweight and the hepatic fibrosis in the alcoholic.

The aim of this project is to demonstrate that adipokines, as well as the PPAR α et γ are implied in the intensity of the steatosis and in the regulation of the inflammatory process and the hepatic fibrogenesis in alcoholic liver disease. In order to prove this hypothesis, we will study among patients having a ALD at various stages of histological severity: 1) the hepatic and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue expression of the PPAR α and PPAR γ 2)the hepatic and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue expression of the TNF α, the IL1Ra, the IL6 and the IL10; 3)the hepatic and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue expression of the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin); 4) the serum adipokine values, the cynetic of the mRNA expression and of the serum adipokine values after 7 days of alcohol withdrawal 50 patients will be studied (25 having ALD without cirrhosis, with or without acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) and 25 having alcoholic cirrhosis with or without AAH). A part of liver biopsy will be frozen in a dry tube. The percutaneous adipose tissue will be obtained with a ponction on the abdominal level at the time of inclusion of the patients having AAH and, for the second time, after 7 days of alcohol withdrawal, than will be frozen. The TNF α, the IL1Ra, the IL6, the IL10, the leptin, the adiponectin and the resistin expression as well as the hepatic and adipose tissue PPAR α and γ will be evaluated by PCR in real time. The serum concentration of the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) will be measured by ELISA or RIA.

If our hypothesis is true, severity of liver lesions (steatosis, AAH, fibrosis) could be positively correlated with the expression in the liver and the adipose tissue and/or the serum values of the anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines (TNF α, IL6, leptin, resistin) and negatively with the cytokines and adipokines which are potentially anti-inflammatory (IL1Ra, IL10, adiponectin). We also expect to find a negative correlation between the amount of hepatic and adipose tissue PPAR-α and PPAR-γ mRNA and the severity of the liver disease.

Study Design

Observational Model: Defined Population, Observational Model: Natural History, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional, Time Perspective: Prospective

Conditions

Alcoholic Hepatitis

Location

Hôpital Antoine Béclère
Clamart
France
92140

Status

Not yet recruiting

Source

Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:23:41-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.

INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).

A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).

A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.

INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.

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