Topics

Use of OraQuick for Screening HIV in Children Less Than Eighteen Months Old

2014-08-27 03:42:27 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Blood is the most commonly used specimen to test for HIV. In the past 20 years, use of saliva as an alternative specimen for HIV testing has been explored. Today, very sensitive tests have been formulated and have been used for diagnosing HIV in adults and older children. OraQuick, a rapid test, is one such example. It is a devise that can be used to collect as well test the saliva.

Most studies done on the use of saliva have been carried out in adults and have produced very good results. However very few such studies have been done in children, especially infants. In adults, use of saliva has also highlighted the advantages of ease of collection and increased acceptability of testing.

HYPOTHESIS OraQuick rapid test can detect antiHIV antibodies as well as the Abbott determine test and oral fluid testing is more acceptable than blood testing.

Description

BACKGROUND Serological identification of antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in blood is the most widely used method to screen for HIV infection. Use of oral fluid as an alternative to blood sample has been studies the past 20 years and extremely sensitive tests that are able to detect the very low quantities of antibodies found in oral fluid have been formulated and are currently being used. OraQuick rapid test, a combination, collection and testing device that uses both blood and oral fluid was approved for used by the U.S.A, FDA in 2002 and has been tested in adults and older children.

The value of oral fluid in screening for HIV infection in adults is now well established and has been used extensively in field survey and epidemiologic studies. However, these methods have not been studied in children in whom differences in test performance might be expected. Studies in adults have also highlighted the advantages of oral fluid testing, such as ease of collection and high degree of acceptability of testing. This would make oral fluid testing a good alternative for HIV screening in infants, a challenging population in which venipuncture is often difficult or unacceptable.

Study Design

Observational Model: Cohort, Time Perspective: Prospective

Conditions

HIV Antibody Testing

Intervention

Abbott-rapid HIV antibody test, OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody test

Location

University Teaching Hospital,Department of Pediatrics
Lusaka
Zambia
P/B RW 1

Status

Completed

Source

Thrasher Research Fund

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:42:27-0400

Clinical Trials [5994 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Rapid Point-of-care Testing for Hepatitis C in Community Clinics (RAPID-EC)

The Rapid-EC pilot study will determine feasibility of providing rapid point-of-care (POC) testing for HCV in community clinics, and whether the availability of POC testing increases uptak...

Clinical Performance of Reveal G4 Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test

To determine the efficacy of an improved rapid diagnostic test using venous whole blood and fingerstick whole blood. The clinical performance of Reveal G4 Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test will be...

Rapid HIV Tests for Women Late in Pregnancy and During Labor

This study will look at how well the OraQuick HIV 1/2 Antibody rapid test works and how women accept being tested for HIV late in pregnancy and during labor. For women with positive test r...

Testing of INSTI™ HIV-1 Antibody Test Kit in Volunteer Subjects at Risk for HIV Infection

Each year up to 22 million persons in the US are tested for HIV. Currently available "rapid" tests do not provide test results for at least 30 minutes from the collection of serum and pla...

A Theory Based HIV Prevention Video For Rapid HIV Testing: A Randomized Trial

OraQuick is a safe, rapid test that accurately identifies HIV in as little as 20 minutes. By providing an accurate, quick method for detecting a person’s serostatus and access to immedia...

PubMed Articles [14313 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Saline-indirect antiglobulin test.

A saline-indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) is performed without addition of enhancement media to increase the binding of antibody to the red blood cell antigen during the 37°C incubation. Although inf...

Performance of an Alternative Laboratory-Based HIV Diagnostic Testing Algorithm Using HIV-1 RNA Viral Load.

Since 2014, the recommended algorithm for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States has consisted of an HIV-1/2 antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) test followed by an HIV-1/2 antibody (Ab) diff...

Evaluation and readout optimization of the rapid polymyxin NP test for the detection of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

In an increasing number of cases the last therapeutic option for treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is colistin. As the detection of colistin resistance is problematic and time-consu...

Rapid Presumptive Identification of Isolates Using the Tetracore RedLine Alert™ Test.

A comprehensive laboratory evaluation of the Tetracore RedLine Alert test, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the rapid presumptive identification of was conducted at 2 different test sites. The st...

Fluorescent fullerene nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for rapid quantitative detection of C-reactive protein.

A fluorescent fullerene nanoparticle (NP)-based lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum. The polyclo...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Serologic assay that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. After diluting the patient's serum to remove non-specific antibodies, the serum is mixed on a glass slide with Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum. An antigen-antibody reaction occurs if the test is positive and the bound antibodies are detected with fluoresceinated antihuman gamma-globulin antibody.

Hemagglutination test in which Coombs' reagent (antiglobulin, or anti-human globulin rabbit immune serum) is added to detect incomplete (non-agglutinating, univalent, blocking) antibodies coating erythrocytes. The direct test is applied to red cells which have been coated with antibody in vivo (e.g., in hemolytic disease of newborn, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and transfusion reactions). The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibody (e.g., in detection of incompatibility in cross-matching tests, detection and identification of irregular antibodies, and in detection of antibodies not identifiable by other means).

Fluorescent antibody technique for visualizing antibody-bacteria complexes in urine. The presence or absence of antibody-coated bacteria in urine correlates with localization of urinary tract infection in the kidney or bladder, respectively.

Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.

More From BioPortfolio on "Use of OraQuick for Screening HIV in Children Less Than Eighteen Months Old"

Quick Search

Relevant Topic

AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...


Searches Linking to this Trial