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Phase 3 Study (Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy) of Improved Shigella Conjugate Vaccines in 1-4 Year Olds in Israel

2014-08-27 03:42:54 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Shigellosis remains a serious and frequent disease throughout the world. Development of vaccines has been difficult because shigellae are habitants of and pathogens for humans only and there is no consensus about the mechanism(s) of immunity to this pathogen.

Incomplete, but compelling evidence, indicates that a critical level of serium IgG anti-LPS confers immunity to shigellosis. Important data come from our clinical trial in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) recruits. A randomized, double-blind, vaccine-controlled study showed that the S. sonnei-rEPA elicited 74% protection against shigellosis occurring about 3 months after vaccination (p=0.001). This vaccine conferred 43% (p=0.04) protection in one company during an outbreak up to 14 days following vaccination suggesting that our Shigella conjugates might be of value in epidemics. The efficacy of S. sonnei-rEPA was correlated with the level of vaccine-induced IgG antibodies.

The highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality of shigellosis is in young children. But serum antibody responsiveness to polysaccharide-based vaccines is age-dependent and infants and young children respond poorly or not at all to both disease and vaccination. The safety and immunogenicity of these Shigella conjugates in 4 to 6 years-old children in Israel was demonstrated. But although the fold rise in anti-LPS was similar in the children, the level of anti-LPS elicited by the conjugates was lower than in adults. We improved the immunogenicity of Shigella conjugates as shown in mice and then in adult humans. Now we apply to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of these improved conjugates in 1 to 4 years-old children in Israel.

In Israel, shigellosis is common especially in children. S. sonnei (Group D) comprise about 60% of the isolates followed by S. flexneri (Group B): Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Group A) is not found. We propose to administer 2 injections of either S. sonnei-CRM9 or S. flexneri type 2a-rEPAsucc 6 weeks apart in a random double-blind fashion to about 6,000 1 to 4 year-olds. Active surveillance of the vaccinees for enteric infections will be maintained for at least 2 years to evaluate the effect of vaccination.

Description

Shigellosis remains a serious and frequent disease throughout the world. Development of vaccines has been difficult because shigellae are habitants of and pathogens for humans only and there is no consensus about the mechanism/s of immunity to this pathogen.

Incomplete, but compelling evidence, indicates that a critical level of serum IgG anti-LPS confers immunity to shigellosis. A randomized, double-blind, vaccine-controlled study in Israel Defense Force (IDF) recruits showed that the S. sonnei-rEPA elicited 74% protection against shigellosis occurring about 3 months after vaccination (p=0.001). This vaccine also conferred 43% (p=0.04) protection in one company during an outbreak up to 17 days following vaccination suggesting that our Shigella conjugates might be of value in epidemics. The efficacy of S. sonnei-rEPA was correlated with the level of vaccine-induced IgG antibodies.

The highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality of shigellosis is in young children. But serum antibody responsiveness to it is age dependent and infants and young children respond poorly or not at all to polysaccharide antigens following disease, administration of attenuated strains of Shigella or vaccination with whole cell vaccines. The safety and immunogenicity of similar Shigella conjugates in 4 to 7 years-old children in Israel was demonstrated. But, anthough the fold rise in anti-LPS was similar in the children, the level of anti-LPS elicited by the conjugates was lower than in adults. We improved the immunogenicity of Shigella conjugates as shown in mice and then in adult humans. Now we apply to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of these improved conjugates in 1 to 4 years-old children in Israel. In addition to monitoring the safety and immunogenicity of the two investigational Shigella vaccines, active surveillance of the vaccines for enteric infections wil be maintained for at lest 2 years to evaluate the effect of vaccination.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Prevention

Conditions

Shigellosis

Intervention

Shigella Vaccines

Location

The Afula Hospital
Afula
Israel

Status

Completed

Source

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:42:54-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

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