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This study will determine how well four different antiretroviral drug therapies work in patients with advanced HIV disease. The trial is part of the South Africa-U.S. Project Phidisa Programme - a collaboration between the South African Military Health Service (SAMHS) of the South African National Defense Force (SANDF), the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. National Institutes of Health - to help prevent HIV transmission among South African military and civilian employees and their families.
Members of the SANDF with HIV infection may be eligible for this study. HIV-infected family members who are 14 years of age and older may also participate. All participants must have a CD4 count of less than 200 or an AIDS-defining illness.
Participants are randomly assigned to one of the following four antiretroviral drug regimens, which require taking 5 pills or more every day:
- AZT (zidovudine) + ddl (didanosine) + EFV (efavirenz)
- AZT (zidovudine) + ddl (didanosine) + r/LPV (lopinavir/ritonavir)
- D4T (stavudine) + 3TC (lamivudine) + EFV (efavirenz)
- D4T (stavudine) + 3TC (lamivudine) + r/LPV (lopinavir/ritonavir)
Patients are followed for up to 6 years. Clinic visits are scheduled once a month for the first 3 months and then once every 3 months for the next five years. Patients undergo a medical history, physical examination, and blood tests at each visit, and complete questionnaires of behavior, quality of life, and force readiness every year.
This is a randomized, open label 2x2 factorial study of four regimens of initial therapy.
I. AZT + ddl + EFV
II. AZT + ddl + r/LPV
III. D4T + 3TC + EFV
IV. D4T + 3TC + r/LPV
Eligible patients will commence their randomly allocated study drugs as soon as possible after randomization. Episodes of treatment limiting toxicity will be managed in keeping with protocol specified guidelines.
Patients who experience treatment failures (as specified in the protocol) will be managed by changing their regimen to that corresponding to one of the other treatment groups.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Zidovudine, Stavudine, Didanosine, Lamevudine, Efavirenz
South African Military Health Services (SAMHS)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:43:56-0400
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A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
Inhibitor or Reverse Transcriptases or of RNA-dIrected DNA polymerase.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that oxidizes a diverse array of XENOBIOTICS. The expression of CYP2B6 varies widely between individuals which is due to the high rate of GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS. Examples of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6 include BUPROPION; efavirenz; CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE; and MEPERIDINE.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
AIDS and HIV
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Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...