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This study will compare the effectiveness of counseling plus use of a nicotine patch with counseling alone for helping pregnant women quit smoking. Smoking during pregnancy is the most preventable cause of fetal and newborn health problems such as low birth weight, fetal growth retardation, sudden infant death syndrome, spontaneous abortion, decreased lung function and premature delivery.
African-American and Hispanic women 18 years of age or older, smoke cigarettes, and live in the District of Columbia metropolitan area may be eligible for this study. Candidates are recruited from the George Washington University and Providence Hospital prenatal health clinics. They are screened with a review of their medical records and a survey that includes questions about their age, residency, race and ethnicity, educational level and employment status, number of weeks pregnant, and exposure to cigarette smoke and other types of tobacco.
Participants answer questions about their smoking behavior, then receive a 10-minute counseling session and watch a videotape about quitting smoking. Women who are not able to quit smoking in 1 week are then randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. One group continues to receive counseling sessions during the remainder of their pregnancy; the second group receives nicotine patches as well as the counseling sessions. In addition, all participants watch a video about smoking and receive a guide to help them quit. Women who receive the patches must stop smoking completely. If they cannot stop immediately, their participation in the study ends. The behavioral counseling sessions for all the women are a series of conversations between the women and a trained counselor to help the woman through the process of quitting.
Participants are followed during the study with six clinic visits and three telephone calls. During the first visit, the women answer a series of questions about their smoking habits and health concerns. A portion of the urine sample they provide during their routine prenatal visit is used by this study to assess their cotinine (a breakdown product of nicotine) levels. Saliva and breath samples to test for cotinine and carbon monoxide levels are collected at each visit. Saliva is collected by brushing the inside of the cheek with a cotton swab, and breath samples are collected by having the woman blow into a tube connected to a machine. Participants are evaluated four times during the study with questions about their smoking behavior.
With the women's permission, their medical records, health, and treatments during pregnancy are reviewed. At the end of the pregnancy, the infant's weight and health are also reviewed.
The overall focus of the proposed concept submitted by the George Washington University Medical Center investigators is "The Efficacy of NRT to Reduce the Risk of Nicotine Exposure in Pregnant Minority Smokers." Prenatal smoke exposure to the fetus and environmental tobacco smoke exposure of infants and children causes significant harm in both the short- and long-term. Smoking during pregnancy is the foremost preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. There is strong evidence that these exposures are associated with low birth weight (LBW) and infant mortality, respiratory illness, ear infections, tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, asthma, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), developmental delay, and increased health care utilization and hospitalizations.
George Washington University Medical Center investigators are submitting two concept papers that aim to test the efficacy of innovative intervention methods tailored to reduce fetal and infant exposure to nicotine secondary to maternal smoking and environmental tobacco exposure.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Nicotine Replacement Therapy
GW University Medical Center
District of Columbia
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:43:58-0400
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Therapeutic replacement or supplementation of defective or missing enzymes to alleviate the effects of the enzyme deficiency (e.g., GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE replacement for GAUCHER DISEASE).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.
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