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The purpose of this study is to determine whether an intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine administered to surgical patients intra-operatively will improve the characteristics of sleep post-operatively.
Physiological similarities exist between the anesthetized state and sleep. Pathways within the brain controlling sleep and wakefulness are also affected by anesthesia. One significant difference between the states of anesthesia and sleep is the ability to respond whenever a relatively mild stimulus is applied, e.g. verbal command or gently shaking. Interestingly, this feature of arousability is seen when dexmedetomidine is used for sedation but is absent when alternative intravenous anesthetic agents, e.g. propofol, are used to provide similar degree of sedation. Recent studies have shown that dexmedetomidine acts on receptors located within the locus ceruleus, which are responsible for both sleep and anesthesia.
During a recent study volunteers received an infusion of dexmedetomidine during the afternoon prior to remaining under study conditions for the duration of the night. The study was not designed to measure sleep but anecdotal reporting from the participants suggested that they were able to resume their normal day’s activities whilst the subject receiving placebo felt extremely fatigued from lack of sleep. This prompted the establishment of a pilot study to determine if dexmedetomidine could provide restorative sleep to people under disturbed sleep conditions i.e. postoperative patients.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Midazolam, Fentanyl, Isoflurane
Duke University Medical Center
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:44:19-0400
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects, safety and cost of midazolam used alone or sequential use of midazolam and propofol/dexmedetomidine for long-term sedation in critically ...
This is a randomized controlled trial to compare propofol to dexmedetomidine for prolonged sedation (> 24 hours) in critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation.
Diagnostic bronchoscopy is an invasive procedure performed to diagnose respiratory diseases. But pain has been complained by most of the patients receiving such procedures. Sedation or ane...
Our hypothesis is that adding midazolam and/or fentanyl to propofol sedation for elective outpatient colonoscopy increases cognitive impairment at hospital discharge without improving intr...
The purpose of this study is to compare propofol associated with fentanyl versus midazolam plus fentanyl for sedation during diagnosis or therapeutic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE)...
To compare cardiovascular function and response to nociception during total intravenous anaesthesia in pigs with propofol, ketamine and either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl administered as a continuous ...
Midazolam and propofol are both used for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of midazolam and propofol in gast...
In patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia, we compared the postoperative analgesic effect of intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine versus propofol. We hypothesized ...
Delirium, which is prevalent in postcardiac surgical patients, is an acute brain dysfunction characterised by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neuroco...
Recent studies have shown that etomidate is associated with fewer serious adverse events than propofol and has a noninferior sedative effect. We investigated whether etomidate-midazolam is associated ...
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Rare and often fatal drug complication which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of PROPOFOL. It is characterized by METABOLIC ACIDOSIS; HYPERLIPIDEMIA; RHABDOMYOLYSIS; cardiovascular CIRCULATORY COLLAPSE; CARDIAC FAILURE; and KIDNEY FAILURE.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...