Combined Modality Treatment for Patients With Stage IV Melanoma

2014-08-27 03:45:16 | BioPortfolio


The purpose of this study is to test a combined treatment using cyclophosphamide and a novel dendritic cell vaccine in patients with Stage IV melanoma.


A novel dendritic cell vaccine has been developed at the Baylor Institute for Immunology Research. Pre-clinical studies have found that this dendritic cell vaccine is more efficient in inducing a tumor specific immunity than other dendritic cell vaccines. Further studies in BIIR have been done with dendritic cells that were loaded with killed melanoma cells from a melanoma cell line treated with heat before loading. Both studies have shown that DCs manufactured in this novel way were more efficient in priming the melanoma specific CD8+ cells. Our previous studies indicate that a portion of patients with stage IV melanoma cannot mount an immune response to tumor antigens presented on dendritic cells. Also, regulatory/suppressor T cells can be identified in the blood of these patients, which may account for the lack of induction of T cell immunity to dendritic cell vaccines. Cyclophosphamide treatments have improved antitumor immunity in humans with melanoma and a clear relationship between cyclophosphamide dosage and suppressor cell activity has been documented. Therefore, this trial will test a combined modality treatment, using dendritic cell based vaccines in patients who have been treated with cyclophosphamide.

This clinical trial will evaluate the cyclophosphamide/dendritic cell vaccine in patients with Stage IV melanoma. The trial will accrue a total of 33 subjects. The primary goal of this trial will be to test the safety/tolerability/feasibility of the combined modality and the rate of objective clinical response. A 15% objective response rate will be accepted in patients who have failed previous therapy with dacarbazine (DTIC) and/or temozolomide, alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents and with or without IL-2.

Patients will receive cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2, administered 24 hours prior to DC vaccinations # 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7. Each subject will initially be given 7 initial injections in a fixed dose amount with each individual dose being administered at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 14 and 18. Patients with progressive disease will be taken off of the study. Patients with SD, PR or CD (according to RECIST criteria) may receive 4 more vaccinations. Scans and re-staging tests will be performed at scheduled intervals throughout the study.

Study Design

Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Historical Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment


Stage IV Metastatic Melanoma


Dendritic cell vaccination


Baylor University Medical Center
United States




Baylor Research Institute

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:45:16-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.

An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.

Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.

Group activities directed against VACCINATION.

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