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In patients who are on chronic hemodialysis (HD), anemia is a major complication and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Consequently, management of anemia by recombinant erythropoietin is reported consistently to improve outcome measures in HD patients. Because iron is essential for hemoglobin formation, as is erythropoietin, most patients routinely receive iron intravenously (IVIR) for anemia correction. Although IVIR has been shown to improve both survival and quality of life of HD patients, it has been suggested that IVIR may enhance the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the body through the inflammation process and the Fenton reaction. Previously we demonstrated that that serum albumin is highly oxidized in HD patients and that IVIR on these patients significantly increased the oxidation status of albumin.
In 2004, the committee on the guidelines of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) published the original Japanese "Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients". In the JSDT guidelines 2004, the committee recommended two IVIR schedules for iron deficient patients; 1) administer 40 mg of IV iron at the end of dialysis session 3 times a week for 4 weeks (total 520 mg of iron), 2) administer 40 mg of IV iron at the end of dialysis session once a week for 3 months (total 520 mg of iron). Both administration schedules are effective for the correction of iron deficiency and consequently for the amelioration of anemia. However, the effect of IVIR frequency (three times a week vs. once a week) on the oxidative stress formation has not been investigated before.
Comparison: the two IVIR schedules recommended by the JSDT guideline 2004 will be compared by measuring both hemoglobin and oxidized albumin in chronic HD patients.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Dose Comparison, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Chronic Renal Failure
chondroitin sulfate-iron colloid
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:45:51-0400
The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of oral iron (ferrous sulfate) plus erythropoietin to Iron Sucrose plus erythropoietin for managing anemia patients with chronic renal ...
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Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 184.108.40.206 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 220.127.116.11 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
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