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Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer

2014-08-27 03:45:57 | BioPortfolio

Summary

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as fluorouracil and leucovorin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving radiation therapy and chemotherapy before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. Giving chemotherapy after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery. It is not yet known whether radiation therapy is more effective with or without chemotherapy when given before surgery for rectal cancer.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying radiation therapy given together with fluorouracil and leucovorin to see how well they work compared to giving radiation therapy alone before surgery in treating patients with stage II or stage III rectal cancer.

Description

OBJECTIVES:

- Compare the recurrence-free and overall survival of patients with resectable stage II or III adenocarcinoma of the rectum treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy comprising fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium followed by surgery and adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium.

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to participating center, gender, location of the tumor relative to the anal margin (0-5 cm vs > 5 cm), and tumor stage (T3 vs T4). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

- Neoadjuvant therapy: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 neoadjuvant therapy arms.

- Arm I: Patients receive leucovorin calcium IV and fluorouracil IV over 15 minutes on days 1-5. Treatment repeats every 28 days for 2 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients also undergo concurrent radiotherapy 5 days a week for 5 weeks.

- Arm II: Patients undergo radiotherapy as in arm I.

- Surgery: In both arms, patients undergo surgical resection within 3-10 weeks after completing neoadjuvant therapy.

- Adjuvant therapy: Within 3-10 weeks after surgery, all patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy comprising leucovorin calcium IV and fluorouracil IV over 15 minutes on days 1-5. Treatment repeats every 21 days for 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed every 6 months for at least 5 years.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 762 patients will be accrued for this study.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Colorectal Cancer

Intervention

fluorouracil, leucovorin calcium, adjuvant therapy, conventional surgery, neoadjuvant therapy, radiation therapy

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:45:57-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.

The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.

Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.

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