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Malaria infection during pregnancy poses substantial risk to the mother, her fetus, and the neonate. Prevention of malaria during pregnancy is vital in decreasing maternal and child mortality in Africa. There are data from studies that show that intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is safe, efficacious, and effective in preventing maternal anemia, placental parasitemia, and LBW. Resistance to SP, however, is increasing rapidly in Africa and there is an urgent need to find alternative effective, safe and affordable drugs for the treatment and prevention of malaria in pregnancy.
The investigators conducted a trial to determine the efficacy and safety of azithromycin and artesunate combined with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as treatment against malaria during pregnancy.Pregnant women 14 to 26 weeks gestation with P. falciparum parasitemia on peripheral blood film were randomly assigned into 3 treatment groups and received two doses of:(1) SP (3 tablets) only; (2) SP and azithromycin (1gram/day x 2 days)and (3) SP and artesunate 200mg/day for 3 days). The two doses of the study drug were administered approximately 4 weeks apart. All study drugs were taken under observation.Blood samples were collected on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 after treatment and at any visit when the women presented with symptoms of malaria. The women were also given an insecticide-treated net (ITN) and followed until delivery. Adverse effects were assessed at each scheduled visit, any unscheduled visits during the study, and at delivery. Peripheral and placental blood films and placental biopsies were prepared at delivery. Newborns were weighed, examined, and gestational age was determined.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Azithromycin, Artesunate
Mpemba and Madziabango Health Centers
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:46:17-0400
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A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
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