Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
There are currently no interventions available to substantially reduce the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) apart from increasing the age at marriage, maternal iron supplementation and possibly improved energy intakes.
The current view of the medical and public health community in India is that the immediate focus should be on promoting survival and development of low birth weight infants who have nearly a 6 to 7 fold higher mortality during infancy than those with normal birth weight.
Low serum zinc is associated with increased incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia. There is sufficient evidence in under-threes that during acute illness, zinc supplementation (1-2 recommended dietary allowance [RDA]) reduces incidence of all episodes of diarrhea, severe diarrhea and pneumonia. A number of initial published trials also show significant effect of zinc treatment on pneumonia. With the large and consistent effects of zinc supplementation on the incidence and severity of infections, an effect on child mortality is likely.
Available literature suggests the distinct possibility of reduced neonatal and infant mortality in LBWs receiving 1 RDA of zinc daily. A pilot study in India showed a 54% reduction in mortality in LBW infants. These findings were based on a very small sample and therefore considered insufficient to change policy.
A positive impact in the proposed study will provide an important tool for reduction of infant mortality which is currently stagnant and government acceptance for such a program is likely to be very high. We, the researchers at the Society for Applied Studies, believe this study has the potential for decreasing infant mortality from its current level.
A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial is being conducted in which the unit of randomization is 14-28 days old infants. Infants in the intervention group receive 1 RDA of elemental zinc compared to placebo in the control group, from the day of enrollment till 12 months of age.
Infants for enrollment are being identified through daily screening of newborns in two hospitals. Eligible infants are visited at home for enrollment when aged 14-28 days. The mother is trained in supplement administration. A total of 2000 infants will be enrolled.
Infants in the intervention group are being administered a dispersible tablet daily containing 1 RDA of elemental zinc (5 mg elemental zinc per day in infants aged 14 days to 6 months and 10 mg per day for infants older than 6 months) daily till 12 months of age. The placebo contains plain glucose but is similar in taste, color and consistency to the zinc tablet. The tablets are packaged in strips containing 15 tablets each.
Monthly supplies of the supplement are given to the caregiver to be kept at home. The supplement is administered by the caregiver (usually the mother) herself and the method of administration is taught at the time of enrollment. At the end of every four weeks the monitor collects the strips for the previous month and records the supplement intake for the previous month by examining the strips and querying the caregiver.
Three monthly morbidity visits are conducted by a field investigator to obtain information on the hospitalizations and their causes in the last 3 months, healthcare provider visits in the last 1 month, illnesses for which these were made and severity of these illnesses, diarrhea and respiratory morbidity in the previous 24 hours, week and month. If the infant has been hospitalized in the last 3 months, a hospitalization form is filled to ascertain the reason for hospitalization. In case of deaths, an interview is conducted with the caregiver and a verbal autopsy form is filled.
Blood specimens for estimation of plasma zinc, copper and ferritin are being obtained in 15% randomly selected children at baseline and at end study.
Weights and lengths are being obtained in a subset of children at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Society for Applied Studies
Society for Applied Studies
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:46:56-0400
Assessment of the impact of oral Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) application on acute diarrhoea and the development of prolonged and persistent diarrhoea in paediatric patients hospitali...
The present study is designed to evaluate the effect of a mixture of probiotics on the prevention of traveler's diarrhea (TD) in subjects who travel to a country with a high risk for devel...
The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of probiotics containing 25Bn (billion) CFU (colony-forming unit) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Sacchromyces boulardii and Bifidobact...
Diarrhea is one of the side effects of antibiotics. Antibiotic associated diarrhea can be encountered between two hours to two months after starting of antibiotics. The purpose of the stud...
Green banana has been traditionally used in diarrheal and other diseases. Recent studies have shown that green banana is beneficial in children with diarrhea. The purpose of this study is...
Although placebo analgesia is a well-recognized phenomenon with important clinical implications, the possibility that placebo effects occur during sleep has received little attention. This experimenta...
Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect.
Despite remarkable progress in the reduction of under-five mortality, childhood diarrhea is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in this highly susceptible and vulnerable population. In ...
Diarrhea causes monovalent and divalent ion losses that can influence clinical outcome. Unlike the losses of monovalent ions, such as Na+, K+, Cl-, and [Formula: see text], which are generally large i...
This study investigated recent trends in antibiotic use and factors associated with antibiotic use among children with acute infectious diarrhea. We obtained records of outpatients aged under 18 years...
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...
Pneumonia (bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia and double pneumonia) is inflammation (swelling) of the tissue in one or both of your lungs. It is usually caused by an pneumococcal infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. However,...
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...