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The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Mediterranean style diet, enriched in monounsaturated and omega-3 fats, is superior to the American Heart Association Step 2 diet, a traditional low fat diet, for improving rates of survival and cardiovascular complications in persons who have had a first myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Cardiovascular diseases (heart attack, stroke, and other vascular diseases) are major causes of mortality in developed countries. Although medicines and revascularization procedures prolong lives, rates of death and disability remain high. Lifestyle factors greatly contribute to risk. Yet, scientific data regarding the role of lifestyle change in prevention and treatment are limited. In the nutrition area, limitations include observational or uncontrolled study design, and focus on surrogate markers rather than on clinical outcomes.
Excess dietary fat has long been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Increased risk is related both to types of fat and calories from fat. Saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans-fatty acids have all been associated with adverse outcomes. Because fat is calorie-laden, high fat diets are commonly associated with weight gain and obesity. Low-fat diets have traditionally been recommended to control lipids and weight. However, these diets are high in carbohydrate and may actually be associated with weight gain if calories are not limited. Such diets have also been associated with worsening of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and an adverse lipid pattern (low HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels). In contrast, increased intake of monounsaturated and omega-3 fats is associated with favorable effects on cardiovascular risk factors and markers including: endothelial function, lipids, and levels of insulin and glucose. Results have been consistent across various groups of high-risk patients, including those with hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension. Most importantly, a Mediterranean style diet enriched in monounsaturated and omega-3 fats reduced death and cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction (MI) in the Lyon Heart study.
The American Heart Association (AHA) Step 2 is a low-fat diet traditionally recommended for people with cardiovascular disease. The Mediterranean and AHA Step 2 diets differ primarily in the amount of monounsaturated and omega-3 fats, both of which are higher in the Mediterranean diet. Both diets are low in saturated fat (less than 7%) and cholesterol (less than 200 mg/d). Although the Lyon Heart Study compared a Mediterranean diet to a "prudent Western diet," a low fat diet similar to the AHA diet, the latter group did not achieve recommended intake levels of saturated fat or cholesterol. Furthermore, there was no longitudinal nutritional intervention in the low fat diet group. Therefore, the effect of nutritional intervention per se was not addressed.
Comparison(s): In survivors of a first MI, two longitudinal nutritional interventions, a Mediterranean style diet and an AHA Step 2 diet, will be compared. Both intervention groups will be compared to an untreated control group from our clinical database.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Mediterranean diet/American Heart Association Step 2 diet
Providence Medical Research Center
Active, not recruiting
Providence Health & Services
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:47:03-0400
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A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, cereals and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal. This does not include DIET THERAPY, a specific diet prescribed in the treatment of a disease.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
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