Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The principal objectives of the RADAR trial is to address the hypotheses; 1) that 18 months androgen deprivation in conjunction with radiotherapy is superior to 6 months androgen deprivation prior to and during radiotherapy; 2) that 18 months Bisphosphonate therapy will prevent bone loss caused by androgen deprivation therapy and further reduce relapse risk by impeding the development of bony metastases.
Traditionally androgen deprivation (by orchidectomy, or more recently by medication) has been reserved for the palliative treatment of men with advanced, incurable prostate cancer. However, evidence from large scale trials is beginning to suggest that androgen deprivation (AD) may be helpful in preventing relapse in patients with more localised disease who are treated surgically or by radiotherapy. Of the 8000 patients per annum who are treated with curative intent, one half (4000) have cancers where 'adjuvant' AD may be prescribed according to interpretation of the registered indications. There are, however, enormous variations in prescribing practices which reflect uncertainty as to the appropriate indications. An important issue is osteopenia.
The increasing use of AD in men with earlier stages of cancer, whose life expectancies exceed 3 years, has exposed many unwanted metabolic sequelae of prolonged AD, the most important being osteopenia. In 1996, with the funding support of the NHMRC and the pharmaceutical industry, TROG therefore launched a large randomised three-arm trial. Two of the arms repeated the two arms of the US Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 86.01 trial which, at the time, was showing early indications of benefit for the addition of two months maximal androgen deprivation (MAD), using Goserelin (Zoladex) and Flutamide, before radiation therapy and one month during. Since work from Canada had indicated that continued AD for periods longer than three months produced additional shrinkage of the prostatic tumour, the TROG 96.01 trial incorporated a third arm: six months MAD prior to and during radiotherapy. The trial completed its recruitment target of 800 eligible patients in early 2000. Although in August 2001 the median follow up time was still very short, a preliminary analysis indicated that significant increases in time to biochemical relapse had been produced by AD. In fact, the benefits of AD were independent of stage, tumour grade and initial PSA value which were confirmed also to predict time to biochemical failure. The hazard of relapse reduced to 0.75 (0.55 - 0.97, 95% confidence intervals) with 3 months AD, and still further to 0.6 (0.45 - 0.82) with six months AD.
Subsequent international developments in this area of research encouraged the design of a 'follow on' trial. A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial reported that 3 years of adjuvant ('post hoc') AD (using Goserelin alone), administered after radiotherapy, reduced relapse and improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. The US Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 85.31 trial indicated that indefinite Goserelin administration after radiotherapy reduced treatment failure rates at all sites when compared with radiotherapy alone. The RTOG 92.02 trial showed that 24 months of adjuvant Goserelin also reduced failure rates in patients treated with 4 months of MAD prior to and during radiotherapy. Subset analyses of the RTOG trials, suggested that patients who gain most from prolonged AD in terms of survival are those with high grade cancers.
It was therefore logical for TROG to propose a second trial with the intention of finding out whether an additional 12 months of AD administered after radiotherapy (aka 'intermediate term' AD [ITAD]) would reduce relapse and mortality in patients treated with six months of AD prior to and during radiotherapy (aka 'short term' AD [STAD]) as in the 'best' arm of its first (96.01) trial. The availability of the potent bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, also made it possible to find out whether or not osteopenia induced in the two arms of the proposed second trial would be prevented by a second random assignment to 18 months' bisphosphonate therapy (BP).
This is a randomised phase III multicentre clinical trial.
After informed consent is given and eligibility is checked patients will be randomised to one of four trial arms:
1. 6 months of androgen blockade with an LH-RH analogue (5 months before start of radiotherapy) (STAD),
2. 18 months of androgen blockade with an LH-RH analogue (starting 5 months before start of radiotherapy) (ITAD),
3. 18 months of therapy with zoledronic acid 4 mg by intravenous infusion every 3 months for 18 months beginning concurrently with STAD
4. 18 months of therapy with zoledronic acid beginning concurrently with ITAD.
Stratification will be according to the following criteria:
T2 / T3, 4 Gleason score 2 - 6 / 7+ Presenting PSA <10 / 10 - 20 / >20 Treatment centre
Radiation Treatment will be delivered using a conventional technique, unless the treatment centre of the participating clinician demonstrates an ability to deliver the treatment using a CRT, IMRT, or HDRB technique verified by the trial TACT.
LH-RH analogue (LH-RHa) (Leuprorelin acetate 22.5 mg) will be delivered as a depot injection every 3 months. This will be administered as an Intramuscular injection (IMI).
Zoledronic acid 4 mg will be delivered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes once every 3 months for 18 months, in patients randomised to this therapy. No placebo therapy will be given to patients randomised to 'no bisphosphonate therapy' treatment arm.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Leuprorelin Acetate, Zoledronic Acid, Conventional external beam therapy
New South Wales
Active, not recruiting
Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:48:13-0400
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of zoledronic acid administered at the same time with teriparatide compared to zoledronic acid alone and teriparatide alone on bone mine...
The overall purpose of this research is to evaluate the safety and side effects of zoledronic acid (also known as Zometa) in patients before they have surgery to remove the cancer.
The study consists of the generation of biological samples (in urine) positive to leuprorelin acetate for doping control by new developed methods, and establish the analytical parameters t...
This research study is being done to find out if giving zoledronic acid before the cancer spreads to the bone is better or worse than standard treatment. The study will also compare the e...
Osteoporosis prevention is important in patients with osteopenia (low bone density). This study will test the safety and efficacy of zoledronic acid in patients diagnosed with osteopenia.
The aim of this study was to assess the imaging and histological features of experimental periapical lesions, including the adjacent alveolar bone, in rats under zoledronic acid treatment. The study u...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a methodology to reduce scatter and leakage radiations to patients' surface and shallow depths during conventional and advanced external beam radiotherapy. Su...
To evaluate the effectiveness of low dose external beam radiation therapy to halt progression of localized periocular light chain (AL) amyloidosis, a clonal plasma cell disorder.
We analyzed factors associated with rectal toxicity after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy (BT) with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT).
Prostate cancer (PCa) is often associated with psychopathological symptoms such as anxiety. This study evaluated the effects of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy leuprorelin ac...
The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Palliative care is the active holistic care of patients with advanced progressive illness. Management of pain and other symptoms and provision of psychological, social and spiritual support is paramount. The goal of palliative care is achievement of the ...