Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The purpose of the study is to see if giving vitamin and mineral supplements helps to protect infants and children from diarrhea, which vitamins and minerals help to improve a child's weight and growth, and if the same results occur in infants and children with HIV. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. Study participants will include 516 infants aged 4-6 months. Participants will include: (1) HIV-infected children, (2) HIV-uninfected children with HIV-infected mothers, and (3) HIV-uninfected children with HIV-uninfected mothers. Subjects will have an equal chance of receiving one of three different vitamin and/or mineral supplements during the study. Study procedures will include up to 7 blood samples and stool samples every 3 months and body composition every 6 months. Participants will be involved in the study for up to 18 months.
A major initiative to reduce the impact of enteric infections on health and nutrition has been micronutrient supplementation. Measures for routine vitamin A and zinc supplementation are gaining increasing support from international agencies, including UNICEF and the WHO. The primary objective of this study is to compare the effect of 3 micronutrient supplements (vitamin A only, vitamin A and zinc, and a micronutrient mixture containing vitamins A, B, C, D, E, K, and calcium, copper, folate, iodine, iron, magnesium and zinc) on prevalent days of diarrhea in 3 groups of children (HIV-infected children, HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women, and HIV-uninfected children born to women without HIV infection). The secondary objectives of the study are: (1) to describe the pathogen-specific pattern of enteric infections in both HIV-infected and uninfected children during ages 6-24 months, with a focus on infection with C. parvum and other protozoan pathogens and (2) to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of micronutrient supplementation in children aged 6-24 months. The tertiary objectives of the study are: (1) to assess whether either zinc alone or a micronutrient mixture containing zinc affects linear growth and body composition and (2) to determine if infection with specific enteric pathogens is associated with the development of persistent diarrhea lasting > 14 days. The proposed study will be conducted through the African Centre for Health and Population Studies located in Hlabisa Health District, in northern KwaZulu Natal (KZN), South Africa. The study is a randomized, double blind, clinical controlled trial with 3 arms in a study population of infants stratified by HIV status and the HIV status of their mothers. Study participants will include a total of 516 infants aged 4-6 months. The following evaluations will be made throughout the study: (1) blood samples, (2) stool sampling-routine (collected at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age), (3) stool sampling-during diarrheal episodes, and (3) lean body mass and anthropometry (assessed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age). Study participants will be involved in study related procedures for up to 18 months.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Vitamin + Zinc + micronutrient mixture, Vitamin A, Vitamin A + Zinc
Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:52:22-0400
Oxidative stress has a role in uremic neuropathy and may be involved in RLS of ESRD patients.Vitamin E &Vitamin C are potential antioxidant supplement that are used in hemodialysis patient...
Assessment of the impact of oral Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) application on acute diarrhoea and the development of prolonged and persistent diarrhoea in paediatric patients hospitali...
Vitamin D is available in two forms, vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. It has previously been assumed that these two forms maintain blood vitamin D equally. However, this may not be the case. ...
The investigators want to make sure that people get the right dose of Vitamin D treatment. They will therefore investigate how skin colour, body mass index, ethnicity, vitamin D binding pr...
The purpose of this study is to answer the following questions: Does vitamin D increase calcium absorption, bone mass and muscle mass and function in women past menopause who have mildly l...
Vitamin Bdeficiency is common, and the incidence increases with age. Most people with vitamin Bdeficiency are treated in primary care with intramuscular (IM) vitamin B. Doctors may not be prescribing ...
Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in adults requires adequate diagnosis based on the rigorous definition of the disease. Recently, it has been reported that assessment criteria for vitamin D deficienc...
Vitamin D deficiency rickets is characterized by mineralization impairment in bone and cartilage of children caused by vitamin D deficiency in the body due to limited sunlight exposure and vitamin D i...
It is well established that UK Asians typically have lower vitamin D levels than Caucasians. It is also known that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is lower in some races than Caucasians. To investigat...
Vitamin D is well known for its role in bone health and immune regulation, playing a role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficiency also has been associated with vari...
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known as HIV, is a member of the lentivirus sub-set of the retrovirus family of pathogens. It causes AIDS, or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Sy...