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To evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle modification following a smoking cessation program in preventing weight gain among hypertensive smokers placed at medical risk by the post-cessation weight gain.
Obesity and smoking are major risk factors for a variety of health-related disorders, such as heart disease, stroke, certain forms of cancer, and diabetes. Recently, it has been reported that up to 65 percent of adults in the United States are overweight or obese. The increasing epidemic of obesity has led to many initiatives to treat obesity and to a number of recent initiatives to prevent weight gain. Similarly, the prevalence of smoking has not declined in the past few years, despite the availability of several clinically and cost-effective smoking cessation programs. One unwanted effect of smoking cessation is weight gain, which, in turn, may exacerbate weight-related health issues. Behavioral programs, and to a lesser degree pharmacological programs, designed to reduce post-cessation weight gain have been successful. However, given that this weight gain is typically cosmetic, it has been determined that such programs should be targeted to those at a higher medical risk as a result of the weight gain (e.g., individuals with hypertension). To our knowledge, no study has evaluated a smoking cessation program, followed by a lifestyle modification program, to prevent weight gain among those placed at medical risk by the post-cessation weight gain, including individuals with hypertension. Some studies find an increased prevalence of hypertension following smoking cessation. It is believed that this is largely (but not solely) due to weight gain following cessation. However, any weight gain in individuals with hypertension places them at risk. Body weight is the single best predictor of adult blood pressure, and blood pressure responds to very small changes in overall body weight.
This study will recruit 660 smokers with hypertension or elevated blood pressure. Given that African Americans are at high risk for both post-cessation weight gain and hypertension, the majority of participants recruited will be African American. Participants will be randomly assigned to either of the following: (a) a validated smoking cessation program followed by a validated weight control program (TONE), which consists of changes in dietary intake and physical activity; or (b) the same smoking cessation program followed by a general health education (contact-time control) program. A follow-up evaluation will occur 1 year following the end of treatment.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Investigator), Primary Purpose: Prevention
Weight Reducing Diet, Exercise, Smoking Cessation
University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:52:57-0400
To test whether a behavioral intervention could indeed achieve the dual goals of promoting smoking cessation and minimizing weight gain.
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A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
A decrease in the incidence and frequency of SMOKING. Smoking reduction differs from SMOKING CESSATION in that the smoker continues to smoke albeit at a lesser frequency without quitting.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
Cessation of the habit of using tobacco products for smoking or chewing, including the use of snuff.
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