Melphalan and Radiation Therapy Followed By Lenalidomide in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Multiple Myeloma

2014-07-23 21:51:22 | BioPortfolio


RATIONALE: Melphalan, a chemotherapeutic agent, has been found to be an effective treatment choice for destroying myeloma cells, especially when given at high (bone marrow ablative) doses. Total marrow irradiation (TMI)/ablative dose radiation therapy is another modality capable of destroying myeloma cells. Autologous peripheral blood/stem cell transplant (ASCT) given after either melphalan or following TMI (aimed at the bone marrow containing areas of the skeleton, the site of origin of myeloma cells) will shorten the duration/alleviate the severity of both melphalan and marrow irradiation-associated side effects. Lenalidomide, an effective agent on its own right for the treatment of myeloma, has been shown to further enhance the beneficial effects of autologous stem cell transplants when given as maintenance therapy.

PURPOSE: This previously phase I trial established the maximum tolerated dose of TMI at 1600 cGy. The phase II part of this study is ongoing and is studying the effects of high-dose melphalan and ASCT, followed by TMI and a second ASCT, with subsequent maintenance lenalidomide. The study is conducted in patients with stages I-III myeloma, with specific emphasis on assessing complete and very good partial response rate conversions, progression-free and overall survival, and safety/feasibility of delivering the planned treatment regimen.



I. To assess the feasibility and toxicities of tandem cycle ablative therapy consisting first of high-dose melphalan and then escalating doses of fractionated total marrow irradiation (TMI) using helical tomotherapy in patients with advanced multiple myeloma.

II. To establish the maximum tolerated dose of TMI using helical tomotherapy. III. To assess response rate, progression free and over-all survival following treatment with tandem cycle ablative therapy consisting first of high-dose melphalan and then escalating doses of TMI using helical tomotherapy with Dexamethasone/Thalidomide maintenance therapy in patients with advanced multiple myeloma.

IV. To assess the feasibility of adding decadron and thalidomide as maintenance following the second cycle of high-dose therapy.


I. To perform cytogenetic, gene rearrangement, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies on baseline and post-treatment bone marrow and blood specimens and correlate the presence/persistence of these features with treatment outcome.

II. To bank/develop cell lines developed for future investigations of tumor biology, and for potential assessment of efficacy of novel therapeutic agents.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of total marrow irradiation (TMI).

PRIMING AND APHERESIS: Patients receive cyclophosphamide IV over 2 hours. Patients also receive filgrastim IV or subcutaneously daily beginning 24 hours after the administration of cyclophosphamide and continuing until apheresis is complete. Patients undergo apheresis until an adequate number of peripheral blood stem cells are collected.


Course 1: Patients receive high-dose melphalan IV over 30 minutes on days -2 and -1. Patients then undergo autologous PBSC transplantation on day 0 and receive filgrastim IV or subcutaneously beginning on day 5 and continuing until blood counts recover.

Course 2: Beginning 6-18 weeks later, patients undergo TMI once or twice daily on days -4 to -1. Patients then undergo autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant and receive filgrastim IV or subcutaneously beginning on day 5 and continuing until blood counts recover.

MAINTENANCE THERAPY: Beginning within 6-8 weeks of day 0 of course 2 (TMI), patients receive oral lenalidomide daily. Courses repeat every 28 days for approximately 3 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed at 30 days, every 6 months for 1 year, and then annually for at least 2 years.

Study Design

Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment


Refractory Multiple Myeloma


total marrow irradiation, melphalan, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, filgrastim, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetic analysis, cyclophosphamide, autologous-autologous tandem hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, lenalidomide


City of Hope Medical Center
United States




City of Hope Medical Center

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:51:22-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.

The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.

Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.

An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.

The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.

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