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Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a common long-term treatment used to inhibit the immune response in transplant patients who receive donor organs. CsA may also help people with HIV. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of and immune response to CsA when given with abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine (ABC/3TC/AZT) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) to HIV infected adults in the early stages of infection.
Study hypothesis: The combination of CsA and LPV/r given to acutely infected individuals will result in lower levels of proviral DNA and latent infectious virus at 48 weeks compared to acute infected individuals treated with LPV/r alone.
During the early stages of HIV infection, HIV replicates unchecked, massive numbers of CD4 T cells are infected and destroyed, and other CD4 cells become infected but enter a latent phase. This latent pool of infected CD4 cells poses a difficult challenge in eliminating HIV infection during the early stages of infection because the cells persist for long periods, even with highly active effective antiretroviral therapy, and may later become active.
CsA is popularly used as a lifelong immunosuppressant for organ transplant patients. CsA inhibits cellular activation, including CD4 cell activation and proliferation. By reducing CD4 cell activation during acute HIV infection, fewer CD4 cells may be infected and die; more importantly, there may be fewer latent cells with the potential to become active later in the disease. However, CsA has many potential toxic effects, including renal damage, and may affect neurologic, endocrine, and hepatic organ systems.
In a previous small study of adults with acute HIV infection, a short 8-week course of CsA was well tolerated, and it is thought that a 4-week course of CsA may result in substantial reduction in both viral load and T cell activation, outweighing any potential toxic effects sustained during the one month treatment. This study will evaluate the safety of and immune response to a 4-week course of CsA with ABC/3TC/AZT and LPV/r compared to ABC/3TC/AZT and LPV/r alone in patients with acute HIV infection.
This 48-week study will randomly assign patients to one of two arms. During the first 4 weeks of the study, Arm A will receive one tablet of ABC/3TC/AZT twice daily, 3 capsules or 2 tablets of LPV/r twice daily, and liquid CsA (dose determined by weight) twice daily. At Week 5, Arm A patients will stop CsA but continue both ABC/3TC/AZT and LPV/r. Arm B will receive one tablet of ABC/3TC/AZT twice daily and 3 capsules or 2 tablets of LPV/r twice daily for all 48 weeks. On a case-by-case basis, an investigator may wish to prescribe ABC/3TC rather than ABC/3TC/AZT at initial therapy. Participants with ABC hypersensitivity will be given 3TC/AZT instead of ABC/3TC/AZT.
A complete physical exam and medical history assessment will occur at study entry and at Week 48. Study visits will occur every week until Week 4, then every 4 weeks until the end of the study. Blood and urine collection and clinical assessments will occur at each study visit. Additionally, patients in Arm A only will undergo CsA level monitoring at Day 3 and Weeks 1, 2, and 3; CsA dosage may be adjusted as necessary.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Abacavir sulfate, Lamivudine, and Zidovudine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir
University of Alabama-Birmingham
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:54:19-0400
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An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 126.96.36.199.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 188.8.131.52.
An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 184.108.40.206.
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Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known as HIV, is a member of the lentivirus sub-set of the retrovirus family of pathogens. It causes AIDS, or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Sy...