Daily Isoniazid to Prevent Tuberculosis in Infants Born to Mothers With HIV

2014-08-27 03:54:31 | BioPortfolio


HIV infected women in southern Africa have a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection. Children born to HIV infected mothers may be more likely to be exposed to and become infected with TB, and children infected with TB have a higher risk of developing severe disease than adults with TB. The purpose of this study is to determine if the antibiotic isoniazid (INH) will prevent TB infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers in southern Africa.


TB and HIV are major public health problems in southern Africa, and the incidence of TB in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is caused by the highly contagious bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The use of INH prophylaxis in adults has been associated with reduced risk of TB disease in high-risk populations. Delay in initiating INH prophylaxis in children has resulted in more cases of childhood TB infection. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of INH prophylaxis in preventing TB infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers in southern Africa.

Infants will be randomly assigned to receive either INH or placebo by mouth daily, beginning between the 91st and 120th day of life, and at least 90 days after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. At sites in South Africa, HIV infected infants will receive daily sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis until at least 1 year of age; HIV uninfected infants will receive SMX/TMP until at least 6 months of age. In Malawi, HIV exposed infants will be given SMX/TMP until they are confirmed HIV negative at 18 months of age; HIV infected infants will continue receiving prophylaxis.

This study will last 192 weeks. Study visits will occur at study entry and every 12 weeks until Week 192. A physical exam and blood collection will occur at each study visit. Infants will be assessed for peripheral neuropathy every 12 weeks until Week 96 and for TB at Weeks 96, 144, and 192. The study will also assess medication adherence.

As of November 12, 2008, Follow-up has been revised. All participants will be permanently discontinued from study follow-up by February 28, 2009 and no later than May 31, 2009. Only clinical evaluations will be performed for all participants. For HIV-infected participants, the study drug will be stopped at the next scheduled visit. For HIV-uninfected subjects, the study drug is discontinued immediately.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver), Primary Purpose: Prevention


HIV Infections


Isoniazid, Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim


University of Cape Town, Red Cross Children's Hospital
Cape Town
South Africa


Active, not recruiting


National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:54:31-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. The interference with folic acid metabolism may cause a depression of hematopoiesis. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.

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