Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
This study will explore factors that affect obesity and obesity-related diseases in both Caucasians and African Americans. By looking at the rate at which the human body burns calories while at rest (resting energy expenditure, or REE) and at the rate at which fat travels through the blood (fatty acid flux), this study will examine the relationship between REE and fatty acid flux, both of which are determinants of obesity. Researchers will compare the test results of Caucasians and African Americans to determine if race has an effect on the relationship between REE and fatty acid flux.
Volunteers must be between 18 and 49 years of age. Equal numbers of typical weight, overweight, and obese participants will be recruited. Candidates will be screened with a physical examination, electrocardiogram, and blood tests, and will be interviewed about diet and exercise habits, family and medical history, and employment.
Participants will be placed on a two-week maintenance diet (prepared by a dietician to regulate and maintain calorie consumption) and must visit an outpatient clinic for weight measurement for 10 consecutive weekdays. During the two-week diet, participants will also undergo two 20-minute computerized scans to measure abdominal and body fat. At the end of the two weeks, participants will then be hospitalized for two days to allow researchers to conduct blood tests, oral glucose tests, and a physical examination to measure REE and fatty acid flux levels for comparison.
Thirty percent of Americans are obese. Women are more severely affected than men. African-Americans are more severely affected than Caucasians.
To understand the metabolic consequences of obesity, it is essential to know the rate at which free fatty acids (FFA) are released from adipose tissue. Circulating FFA contribute to the complications of obesity particularly diabetes and heart disease. As there are sex and race differences in the prevalence of all these conditions there may be sex and race differences in FFA flux. FFA flux represents the rate at which FFA circulate. FFA flux is the result of three processes going on at the same time, (1) the rate FFA are released from adipose tissue, (2) the rate circulating FFA are used for energy, and (3) the rate FFA leaves the circulation to re-enter adipose tissue. No data is available on whether sex and race differences in FFA flux exist. Further, when comparing subjects of different size, sex and race, it is unknown whether FFA flux should be corrected for lean body mass or resting energy expenditure.
To determine if there are sex and race differences in FFA flux and to ensure adequate enrollment of both African American and Caucasians, this investigation is a collaborative effort between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland and the Mayo Clinic in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The greater Washington, DC, metropolitan area, where NIH is located, has a large African-American community whereas over 90 percent of residents of Olmsted County are Caucasians. Therefore, sex differences in FFA flux in African Americans will be mainly studied at the National Institutes of Health. Sex differences in FFA flux in Caucasians will be mainly studied at the Mayo Clinic. But, to confirm the ability to combine data from two different sites, some Caucasians will be enrolled at NIH and some African Americans will be enrolled at the Mayo Clinic. The results of the two studies will be combined to determine if there are race differences in FFA flux.
At NIH, 50 African-Americans (25M, 25W, age range 18-49 years) and 14 Caucasians (7M, 7W age range 18-49 years) will be enrolled. Equal numbers of normal weight, overweight and obese subjects will be recruited. As outpatients, participants will be placed on weight maintaining diets for two weeks and then admitted for a two-day hospital stay. On each in-hospital morning, resting energy expenditure will be measured and stable isotopes infused to measure FFA flux. Stable isotopes are naturally occurring forms of elements, which are safe and non-radioactive.
From the study of African-Americans at NIH it will be possible to determine if (a) the rate of FFA release in African-Americans is more highly related to lean body mass or to resting energy expenditure, and (b) if there is a sex difference in this relationship. Then as described above, the results from the Mayo Clinic and NIH will be combined to determine if there are race differences in the FFA flux.
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:54:40-0400
The purpose of this project is to establish a Center of Excellence in Research on Obesity that will focus on severe obesity. The prevalence of severe obesity (i.e., Class 2 and 3 obesity;...
Obesity affects over one third of US adults (>72 million, with BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and the proportion of US adults with BMI ≥40 kg/m2 has doubled in the last 20 years. Obesity is associate...
The purpose of this study is to design and demonstrate the feasibility of implementing moderate and intensive environmental obesity prevention programs at major worksites.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the community-based obesity treatment (PP), compared to usual care (UC), on changes in maternal weight over 12 months.
The objective of this study is to test and evaluate the effectiveness of a parent-only treatment for childhood obesity. This study provides state-of-the-art treatment for childhood obesit...
To evaluate the socioeconomic impact of obesity by estimating the direct and indirect costs associated with obesity in Denmark, based on individual level data.
Medical management of obesity can result in significant weight loss and reduce the burden of obesity-related complications. This report employs a new conceptual model to quantify engagement with obesi...
Previous literature suggests the beneficial effects of fitness on abdominal obesity may be attenuated in obesity and abolished in severe obesity. It is unclear whether the beneficial association betwe...
This study aimed to compare the causal effect of overall obesity and abdominal obesity on type 2 diabetes among Chinese Han individuals.
The purpose of this article is to review the association of the obesity pandemic with appearance of cancers in young adults under age 50 and to define potential mechanisms by which obesity may acceler...
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
A sub-PHENOTYPE of obese individuals who have a risk for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES between that of healthy individuals with normal weight and unhealthy individuals with obesity.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several groups of h...