Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The many benefits of breastfeeding are well documented. However, because of the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from an HIV infected mother to her infant, there is considerable concern over the practice, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and effectiveness of the anti-HIV drug nevirapine (NVP) in preventing MTCT of HIV in breastfeeding infants born to HIV infected women in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.
Breastfeeding provides general health, growth, and development benefits to an infant and significantly decreases the risk of certain acute and chronic diseases. Breastfeeding also decreases financial burden on the mother by decreasing the need for infant formula and health care for the infant. However, clinical evidence has shown that HIV can be readily transmitted through breast milk, although the risk of HIV MTCT over time while breastfeeding has been difficult to determine. Given the many advantages of breastfeeding and the significant obstacles to substituting formula for breast milk in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make breastfeeding by HIV infected women safe. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of an extended NVP regimen for prevention of MTCT of HIV through breastfeeding.
This study will last approximately 3.5 years. Mother/infant pairs will be enrolled over a period of 18 to 24 months. During the third trimester of pregnancy, HIV infected participants will receive HIV counseling and the intrapartum/neonatal two-dose NVP prophylaxis regimen to prevent MTCT. Mothers will also be given infant feeding options counseling and information on administering the study drug to the infant. Infants who were randomly assigned to receive a placebo and older than 6 weeks of age as of 08/10/07 OR to receive NVP will continue their treatment assignment. Infants who were randomly assigned to receive a placebo and are 6 weeks of age or less as of 08/10/07 will receive open-label NVP through Day 42 of life. For all other participants, all randomized infants will receive extended NVP through 6 weeks (Day 42) of life. All eligible infants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups at Week 6 following birth. The first group will receive extended NVP treatment; the second group will receive nevirapine placebo. Randomized infants will receive the extended NVP or NVP placebo through the first 6 months of life or until cessation of breastfeeding, whichever occurs earlier. Mothers will be instructed to begin giving their infants their assigned intervention starting at Day 3 to Day 7 postpartum. All mothers and infants outside of the study will be offered the local standard of care antiretroviral (ARV) regimen for the prevention of MTCT, but these ARVs will not be provided by the study.
Follow-up evaluations will be conducted at Weeks 2 and 6 and Months 3, 6, 12, and 18 for mothers, and at Weeks 2, 5, 6, and 8 and Months 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, and 18 for infants. Study visits will include physical examinations, blood tests (including HIV tests), and medical histories. Study participants will be followed for up to 3.5 years.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver), Primary Purpose: Prevention
Nevirapine, Nevirapine placebo
Prince Mshiyeni Hospital
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:54:44-0400
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 400 mg QD nevirapine extended release (NVP XR) formulation versus 200 mg BID nevirapine immediate release (NVP IR) in ARV...
This study aims to compare the trough plasma concentrations of nevirapine after 7 days of treatment at the full dose from baseline with dose escalation in patients taking efavirenz who swi...
The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of nevirapine extended release (NVP XR) based regimen for HIV-1 infected patients who were receiving nevirapine immediate...
Open-Label, multiple-dose, drug interaction study to assess the effect of nevirapine on the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir in HIV-infected individuals.
PRIMARY: To compare the effect of nevirapine versus placebo alone or in combination with zidovudine (AZT) on CD4 T-cell count and percentage after 3 and 6 months of treatment. To evaluate ...
Nevirapine (NVP) is recommended by WHO as the antiretroviral treatment to prevent HIV passing from mother to child. However, the once-daily oral administration results in poor patient compliance, and ...
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) widely used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is the first choice NNRTI during pregnan...
Residual systemic inflammation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ART adherence a...
Although placebo analgesia is a well-recognized phenomenon with important clinical implications, the possibility that placebo effects occur during sleep has received little attention. This experimenta...
Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV infection and AIDS.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...