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The many benefits of breastfeeding are well documented. However, because of the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from an HIV infected mother to her infant, there is considerable concern over the practice, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and effectiveness of the anti-HIV drug nevirapine (NVP) in preventing MTCT of HIV in breastfeeding infants born to HIV infected women in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.
Breastfeeding provides general health, growth, and development benefits to an infant and significantly decreases the risk of certain acute and chronic diseases. Breastfeeding also decreases financial burden on the mother by decreasing the need for infant formula and health care for the infant. However, clinical evidence has shown that HIV can be readily transmitted through breast milk, although the risk of HIV MTCT over time while breastfeeding has been difficult to determine. Given the many advantages of breastfeeding and the significant obstacles to substituting formula for breast milk in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make breastfeeding by HIV infected women safe. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of an extended NVP regimen for prevention of MTCT of HIV through breastfeeding.
This study will last approximately 3.5 years. Mother/infant pairs will be enrolled over a period of 18 to 24 months. During the third trimester of pregnancy, HIV infected participants will receive HIV counseling and the intrapartum/neonatal two-dose NVP prophylaxis regimen to prevent MTCT. Mothers will also be given infant feeding options counseling and information on administering the study drug to the infant. Infants who were randomly assigned to receive a placebo and older than 6 weeks of age as of 08/10/07 OR to receive NVP will continue their treatment assignment. Infants who were randomly assigned to receive a placebo and are 6 weeks of age or less as of 08/10/07 will receive open-label NVP through Day 42 of life. For all other participants, all randomized infants will receive extended NVP through 6 weeks (Day 42) of life. All eligible infants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups at Week 6 following birth. The first group will receive extended NVP treatment; the second group will receive nevirapine placebo. Randomized infants will receive the extended NVP or NVP placebo through the first 6 months of life or until cessation of breastfeeding, whichever occurs earlier. Mothers will be instructed to begin giving their infants their assigned intervention starting at Day 3 to Day 7 postpartum. All mothers and infants outside of the study will be offered the local standard of care antiretroviral (ARV) regimen for the prevention of MTCT, but these ARVs will not be provided by the study.
Follow-up evaluations will be conducted at Weeks 2 and 6 and Months 3, 6, 12, and 18 for mothers, and at Weeks 2, 5, 6, and 8 and Months 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, and 18 for infants. Study visits will include physical examinations, blood tests (including HIV tests), and medical histories. Study participants will be followed for up to 3.5 years.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver), Primary Purpose: Prevention
Nevirapine, Nevirapine placebo
Prince Mshiyeni Hospital
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:54:44-0400
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