Advertisement

Topics

Self-Injury: Diagnosis and Treatment

2014-08-27 03:55:01 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Self-injurious behavior is behavior in which a person hurts or harms himself. This behavior sometimes occurs in people with mental retardation or autism. This study will evaluate self-injurious behavior in people with mental retardation or autism and will test the effectiveness of new treatments.

Description

It is unknown why some people with mental retardation and/or autism repeatedly and persistently injure themselves, some to the point of tissue damage and permanent scarring. Unraveling this mystery poses paradoxical biomedical and behavioral science questions and creates deeply troubling problems for practitioners and family members of affected individuals. Over the past decade, many cases of self-injurious behavior (SIB) have been treated successfully using behavioral interventions that teach communication and other functional skills. However, practical problems of implementation, costs associated with long-term treatment, and cases with no clear social profile suggest that there is still much to be learned about why people self-injure. Some forms of self-injury may involve intense stimulation of body sites sufficient to elicit the release and receptor binding of endogenous opioid peptides. This study will evaluate variables common to SIB and the neurophysiology of pain regulation. The study will also clarify the role of the endogenous opioids and pain mechanisms in self-injury.

Participants with mild to profound mental retardation and/or autism will be observed for frequency of self-injury, duration and intensity of self-injurious behavior, and where on the body that behavior is directed. Following this characterization, participants’ saliva will be noninvasively examined for substance P, met-enkephalin, and cortisol as markers for altered pain transmission and predictors of response to treatment. After screening and SIB subtyping (i.e., social, nonsocial, or mixed), 37 participants whose self-injury is primarily nonsocial or mixed will be evaluated over 16 weeks. Participants will be randomized to receive either transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS, an opioid agonist treatment) or naltrexone (an opioid antagonist treatment). Participants whose self-injury is primarily socially motivated will be evaluated with TENS and will receive behavioral interventions through a technical assistance service delivery model. Follow-up evaluations will occur at Months 3 and 6.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Self-Injurious Behavior

Intervention

Naltrexone hydrochloride, Transcutaneous sensory nerve stimulation

Location

Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill
North Carolina
United States
27599

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:55:01-0400

Clinical Trials [2747 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Evaluation of Naltrexone as a Treatment for Self-injurious Behavior

The proposed study examines the effect of oral naltrexone on self-injurious behavior (SIB) in adolescents and adults of normal intelligence.

A Trial of Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation for OAB

Overactive bladder causes urinary frequency, urgency and in some cases urgency incontinence. This study is testing the efficacy of transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (using skin patch...

A Study of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Overactive Bladder

The purpose of the study is to compare patient centered- outcomes between Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) at three locations to treat urinary urge incontinence. One of t...

Effects of Transcutaneous Vagal Nerve Stimulation on Hemodynamics Parameters

The vagal stimulation is a promising therapy for a lot of disorders as well as hemodynamic regulatory way. In order to minimize the harm of a surgery chip implantation, actually it was dev...

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation During Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval

This randomized double-blinded control trial aims to compare the pain levels experienced by the women using the standard conscious sedation and those who had transcutaneous electrical nerv...

PubMed Articles [5410 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Neurophysiologic effects of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) via electrical stimulation of the tragus: A concurrent taVNS/fMRI study and review.

Electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) via transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may influence afferent vagal networks. There have been 5 prior taV...

Efficiency of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation on Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

To compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) on hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP).

Efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation: Study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

To treat functional constipation, both electroacupuncture (EA) therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) are safe and effective. However, no head-to-head comparison trial has been c...

Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Treating Chronic Back Pain.

This study is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to a control and to other nerve stimulation therapies (NSTs) ...

Vaginal diazepam plus transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to treat vestibulodynia: A randomized controlled trial.

To assess the effectiveness of vaginal diazepam in addition to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the treatment of vestibulodynia (VBD).

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.

Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.

Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.

Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.

More From BioPortfolio on "Self-Injury: Diagnosis and Treatment"

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Relevant Topics

Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...

Autism
Autism affects half a million people in the UK. Men are affected more than women. People with autism have said that the world, to them, is a mass of people, places and events which they struggle to make sense of, and which can cause them considerable a...

Anesthesiology
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...


Searches Linking to this Trial