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The first line of defense against reading disabilities is good classroom reading instruction. This study describes how characteristics of students, teachers, and instruction relate to academic achievement in inner-city kindergarten through Grade 4 classrooms.
Recent studies show that the incidence of reading disability can be significantly reduced by improving classroom instruction. Effective reading instruction in the primary grades includes explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, reading for meaning, and opportunities to practice reading and writing. To learn more about the development of literacy skills in urban settings, students in 17 schools in Houston and Washington, D.C., were followed from kindergarten through Grade 4. Schools were selected based on similar demographics: predominantly African-American student population (95%) and high participation in the federal lunch program (85% to 100%). Each school was provided with grade-appropriate reading programs that focused on phonics and spelling. These programs included direct, integrated, classroom, and individual instruction modules.
Approximately 1400 children and 114 teachers participated each year in this four-year study. The design was cross-sequential so that the majority of teachers in a grade participated for two years. All children participating in regular education were included in the study. Children below the 25th percentile on a standardized reading test were tutored individually by retired teachers, using materials from the classroom reading program. A variety of reading curricula were in place in the classrooms across these two sites. In order to help teachers implement these materials effectively, an ongoing research-based professional development model was employed, with curriculum consultants and coaches working with the teachers in the classroom. Researchers observed in each classroom four to six times during the year using on-the-minute recordings of content. Observers also completed ratings of teaching competencies. Teachers completed surveys of knowledge, experience, attitudes, and instructional strategies. A random selection of eight to ten students were assessed four times during the year for growth in literacy-related skills and once at the end of the year for achievement in reading, spelling, and writing.
Allocation: Non-Randomized, Control: Active Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:55:01-0400
Dyslexia is a common reading disorder. Specialized instructional programs can improve reading ability in children with dyslexia. This study will use functional magnetic resonance imaging...
Developmental dyslexia is a highly heritable disorder in which reading skills are compromised despite normal intelligence and appropriate reading instruction. Reading problems in dyslexia ...
The mechanism of the eye movement anomalies seen in dyslexic patients is not well defined. Some optometrists use observational eye movement tests as screening devices for dyslexia and advo...
Developmental dyslexia is a frequent learning disability. The aim of this study is to compare auditory evoked cortical responses to syllables and tones in developmental dyslexia and contro...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), a computer-assisted intervention method that combines sublexical reading ex...
Research demonstrates that phonological skills provide the basis of reading acquisition and are a primary processing deficit in dyslexia. This consensus has led to the development of effective methods...
Academic accommodations associated with a diagnosis of dyslexia might be incentives for college students without reading or spelling difficulties to feign dyslexia and obtain the diagnosis unfairly. I...
We investigated whether children with dyslexia show enhanced semantic involvement as compensation for deficient phonological processing during reading. Phonological and semantic processing during read...
This study evaluated the claim that auditory processing deficits are a cause of reading and language difficulties. We report a longitudinal study of 245 children at family risk of dyslexia, children w...
Individuals with dyslexia exhibit increased brainstem variability in response to sound. It is unknown as to whether increased variability extends to neocortical regions associated with audition and re...
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.
Books used for sex education and procedural instruction.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty which mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills (BDA). It has been suggested that up to 10% of the population (or even more) show some signs of dyslexia, particularly when it is pr...
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