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Chemotherapy Before and After Surgery in Treating Children With Wilm's Tumor

2014-07-23 21:52:37 | BioPortfolio

Summary

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Giving combination chemotherapy before surgery may shrink the tumor so it can be removed during surgery. Giving more chemotherapy after surgery may kill any remaining tumor cells. It is not yet known which chemotherapy regimen after surgery is most effective in treating Wilm's tumor.

PURPOSE: Phase III trial to study the effectiveness of chemotherapy before and after surgery in treating children who have Wilm's tumor.

Description

OBJECTIVES:

- Determine the response rate in children with Wilms' tumor treated with pre-operative chemotherapy.

- Compare the response rate in children with intermediate-risk stage II or III Wilms' tumor treated with or without doxorubicin after surgery.

- Determine the prognostic significance of histological subtypes in these patients after pre-operative chemotherapy.

- Determine whether reduced treatment minimizes acute and late toxicity without jeopardizing event-free and overall survival in patients with focal anaplasia or intermediate-risk stage I Wilms' tumor.

- Determine the prognostic significance of tumor volume and specimen weight after pre-operative chemotherapy and its relation to histological subtype in these patients.

- Determine the effect of single-dose dactinomycin as pre-operative chemotherapy in these patients.

- Correlate allele loss at 16q, 1p, and other chromosomal regions with relapse-free and overall survival of patients treated with these regimens.

- Correlate allele losses with clinical risk factors (e.g., histological appearance and tumor volume) after pre-operative chemotherapy in these patients.

- Determine laboratory indicators of myocardial damage in patients treated with these regimens.

- Determine the prognostic significance of the percentage of necrosis after pre-operative chemotherapy, in terms of type and amount of residual viable tumor, in these patients.

OUTLINE: This is a partially randomized, multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to country and participating center. Patients with intermediate-risk stage II or III disease are further stratified according to histology (blastemal vs epithelial vs stromal vs mixed).

Patients with localized disease receive neoadjuvant therapy comprising vincristine IV on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 and dactinomycin IV on days 1 and 15.

Patients undergo surgery during weeks 5 or 6.

Patients with low-risk stage I disease receive no further therapy.

Adjuvant chemotherapy begins after surgery and within 21 days of last dose of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Patients with intermediate-risk stage I disease receive vincristine IV on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 and dactinomycin IV on day 7.

Patients with intermediate-risk stage II or III disease are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

- Arm I: Patients receive vincristine IV weekly for 8 weeks and then on days 1 and 7 of weeks 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, and 26. Patients also receive dactinomycin IV weekly on weeks 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, and 26 and doxorubicin IV over 4-6 hours weekly on weeks 2, 8, 14, 20, and 26.

- Arm II: Patients receive vincristine and dactinomycin as in arm I. Patients with high-risk stage I disease receive chemotherapy as in arm I. Patients with low-risk stage II disease receive chemotherapy as in arm II.

Patients with high-risk stage II or III disease receive cyclophosphamide IV over 1 hour on days 1-3 and doxorubicin IV over 4-6 hours on day 1 on weeks 1, 7, 13, 19, 25, and 31. Patients also receive etoposide IV over 4 hours and carboplatin IV over 1 hour on days 1-3 on weeks 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, and 34.

Patients with intermediate-risk stage III or high-risk stage II or III disease also undergo radiotherapy for approximately 3 weeks during chemotherapy.

Patients with metastatic disease receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy comprising vincristine IV on day 1 of weeks 1-6, dactinomycin IV on day 1 of weeks 1, 3, and 5, and doxorubicin IV over 4-6 hours on day 1 of weeks 1 and 5.

Patients undergo surgery during week 7.

Within 2 weeks of surgery patients receive 1 of the following adjuvant chemotherapy regimens:

- Regimen A (no metastases or completely resected): Patients receive vincristine IV weekly for 8 weeks and then on weeks 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, and 27. Patients also receive dactinomycin IV on day 1 of weeks 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, and 26 and doxorubicin IV over 4-6 hours on weeks 2, 8, 14, and 20. Some patients also undergo radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy for approximately 3 weeks.

- Regimen B (multiple inoperable metastases, incomplete resection, or high-risk primary disease): Patients receive etoposide IV over 4 hours and carboplatin IV over 1 hour on days 1-3 of weeks 4, 10, 13, 16, 22, 25, 28, and 34. Patients also receive cyclophosphamide IV over 1 hour on days 1-3 and doxorubicin IV over 4-6 hours on day 1 of weeks 1, 7, 19, and 31. Some patients also undergo radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy for approximately 3 weeks.

Patients are followed every 2-3 months for 2 years, every 3-6 months for 1-2 years, and then every 6-12 months thereafter.

Peer Reviewed and Funded or Endorsed by Cancer Research UK

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 350 patients (174 per treatment arm) will be accrued for the randomized portion of this study within 7 years.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Kidney Cancer

Intervention

dactinomycin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, etoposide, vincristine sulfate, adjuvant therapy, conventional surgery, neoadjuvant therapy, radiation therapy

Location

Institut Gustave Roussy
Villejuif
England
France
94805 CEDEX

Status

Recruiting

Source

National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:52:37-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.

A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)

Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.

An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.

Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.

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