Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The inability to control one's behavior is an important symptom of many psychiatric illnesses. The stop signal paradigm which involves withholding a motor response to a go signal, has proved useful in assessing uncontrolled behavior in children with ADHD and other disorders. This study will use a stop signal paradigm in order to evaluate the ability of children with and without ADHD to control their motor behavior. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan will be used to study how the brain works during specific activities.
This study will evaluate the stop signal paradigm in three groups of people: healthy children, children with ADHD, and healthy adults. This study comprises two sub-studies: a behavioral study in which participants perform simple activities and an MRI study.
Participants will be asked to stop any over-the-counter medication 5 days before entering the behavioral or MRI study. Children with ADHD will be asked to stop taking medication for ADHD 72 hours before the study. All participants will have a medical history and a psychiatric evaluation (for children, both parents and children provide information for the assessment). Participants in the MRI study will also have physical examinations and blood and urine tests. All children will undergo intelligence tests; and those with ADHD will have tests to confirm the diagnosis. The parents of child participants will complete an autism screening questionnaire.
The inability to exert appropriate inhibitory control over one's behavior is an important symptom of many psychiatric illnesses. The stop signal paradigm, which involves withholding a prepotent motor response to a signal, has proved useful in assessing this deficit in children with a range of disorders, particularly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In order to adapt the paradigm for use in fMRI studies, it is important to address two methodological issues: 1) the substitution of a visual stop signal for the more commonly-employed auditory stop signal, and 2) the fact that, on the traditional stop task (in which the subject withholds a motor response to the stop signal), correct trials do not involve a motor response whereas incorrect trials do. The latter problem can be addressed using the stop-change task (in which the subject executes alternative motor responses to the stop and go signals). The first aim of this protocol is to compare behavioral data from the stop and stop-change tasks in control adults, control children, and children with ADHD. These data will be used to test the hypotheses that, on each of these paradigms, children with ADHD will show an inhibitory deficit compared to control children, and control children will show an inhibitory deficit compared to control adults. The second aim of the protocol is to conduct a pilot fMRI study of the stop and stop-change tasks in control adults. The study has an event-related design and will test the hypotheses that ventral prefrontal activation will be greater during successful than unsuccessful stop (or stop-change) trials, and that stop and stop-change trials will be associated with more anterior cingulate and right inferior frontal activation than will go trials.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:56:32-0400
The purpose of this study was to identify genetic, brain morphologic, and environmental biomarkers that contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
The purpose of this study is to find out whether atomoxetine (also called Strattera) helps teenagers (12-19) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and drug/alcohol problems.
The purpose of this research is to assess and determine brain oscillations or "brain signatures" of adult participants with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to adul...
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship of changes in measures of academic performance and problem behaviors, to changes in core Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorde...
The purpose of this study is to test if the investigational medication ABT-089 is a safe and effective treatment for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent symptoms of lack of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The association between nutritional exposures and ADHD has ...
Translation and validation of the Brown attention-deficit disorder scale for use in Brazil: identifying cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among samples of substance users and non-users. Cross-cultural validation study.
The Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) was developed as a self-report assessment that was designed to screen for presence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Th...
The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal, prenatal, perinatal, and postpartum parameters as risk factors for the later development of an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the ch...
The severity of the functional difficulties of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is heterogeneous and may be affected by measurable factors.
It has long been recognized that bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occur in an uncertain proportion of patients, recognized commonly in juvenile years. There...
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
A propylamine derivative and selective ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
A methylphenidate derivative, DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITOR and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANT that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
A dextroamphetamine drug precursor that also functions as a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANT and DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITOR and is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a sub-type of ADHD - symptoms of ADHD include: a short attenti...