Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
This study will follow blood transfusion recipients for 6 to 9 months following transfusion to monitor the quality and safety of blood transfusion. Improved viral testing and careful donor screening in the last several years has dramatically reduced the rates of transfusion-related HIV and hepatitis. Nevertheless, ongoing surveillance of transfusion-related infections is essential to maintain a high safety standard and to determine the transfusion risk of other infectious agents, such as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B-19, HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma virus) and other possible hepatitis viruses that might be blood-transmitted. Transfused patients' blood will be tested for various infectious agents. Their blood samples and blood samples from their donors will be frozen and stored in a repository so that any new infectious agent can be rapidly evaluated for its danger to the safety of the blood supply.
Adult patients at the National Institutes of Health and children at the Children's National Medical Center who are scheduled to receive a blood transfusion or to undergo surgery for which a blood transfusion may be needed are eligible for this study.
All participants will have a 20- to 25-milliliter (about 2 tablespoonfuls) blood sample drawn before their transfusion and again at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after the transfusion. Patients who are transfused on more than one occasion over the course of the study will provide three additional monthly samples. Patients who develop a transfusion-transmitted infection during the study will provide up to four more samples to study the infection and its effects. Participants will complete a brief questionnaire at the end of the study regarding prior blood transfusions and the development of any illnesses, such as hepatitis, that might have been caused by the transfusion.
Improved viral screening assays and more intensive questioning of donors for high-risk behaviors have resulted in dramatic declines in the rates of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis and AIDS. Nonetheless, there is need for continued vigilance of the safety of blood supply. This study will enroll blood donors and prospectively followed blood recipients in order to: 1) establish ongoing surveillance of the incidence of breakthrough infections from transfusion-transmitted agents for which there are existing donor-screening assays (e.g. HBV, HCV, HIV, human T cell lymphotropic virus [HTLV]); 2) monitor the transfusion risk of established infectious agents that are not routinely screened in blood donors including CMV, EBV, parvovirus B-19, HHV-8 [Kaposi's sarcoma virus], and the recently described SEN and TT viruses (possible hepatitis agents); 3) establish a repository of linked donor and recipient samples so that any newly emerging infectious agent can be rapidly evaluated for its threat to the blood supply.
The risk of these blood transmitted infections will be assessed by molecular and serologic assays in adult patients at NIH and in children at Children's National Medical Center. Blood samples from recipients transfused on one occasion will be obtained pre and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-transfusion. Recurrently transfused patients will have additional samples at 16 and 20 weeks after the index transfusion and 24 weeks after the last eligible transfusion. After initial infectious disease testing, recipient samples and linked donor samples will be stored in a repository maintained by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The availability of the repository will allow for the assessment of transfusion risk for newly emerging pathogens and also for known agents for which there is no practical assay currently available. For example, this would allow future testing for prions in new variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (human variant of mad cow disease) or testing for the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease. Informed consent will be obtained to store and later test samples in the repository. Testing will be limited to infectious agents that potentially threaten the blood supply. No genetic testing will be performed.
Childrens National Medical Center
District of Columbia
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:56:40-0400
This study will evaluate subjects with fever and/or rash to determine the percentage of those infected by the Zika, Chikungunya, or Dengue virus. The study will also compare the clinical s...
RATIONALE: Some types of lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease are associated with Epstein-Barr virus. White blood cells from donors who are immune to Epstein-Barr virus may be an effect...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of GB virus C (GBV-C) on the natural history of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in subjects co-infected with HIV and HCV. The o...
The purpose of this study is to examine the HIV virus in the blood and lymphoid tissues of patients taking anti-HIV medications. HIV infection is closely linked to the growth of the HIV v...
HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy is a chronic disease of the spinal cord, caused by a virus called human T lymphotropic virus type 1（HTLV−1）. Natural Killer cells provide rapid responses...
Uganda has reported five (5) Ebola virus disease outbreaks and three (3) Marburg virus disease outbreaks from 2000 to 2016. Peoples' knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus disease impa...
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne flavivirus that causes rare, but often severe, disease in humans. POWV neuroinvasive disease was added to the U.S. nationally notifiable disease list in 2001 and ...
Ebola virus (EBOV) neutralizing antibody in plasma may reduce viral load following administration of plasma to patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), but measurement of these antibodies is complex.
This review provides a summary of our current understanding of the ophthalmic manifestations of Ebola virus disease (EVD), pathogenesis, treatment options and directions for future study. The individu...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination ant...
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections including BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE and BOVINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. The severity of disease appears to be strain dependent. Cytopathogenic effects do not correlate with virulence as non-cytopathic BVDV-2 is associated only with Hemorrhagic Disease, Bovine.
An RNA virus infection of rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys transmissible to man.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...