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Patterns and Natural History of Insulin Secretion in Islet Cell Transplant Recipients and Controls

2014-08-27 03:56:49 | BioPortfolio

Summary

This grant is to study patients that have received a kidney transplant AND an Islet Cell transplant and to discover how the transplant is functioning. We will seek to have several patients who have had a kidney transplant but do NOT have either type of diabetes. These patients will serve as the "control group" since they will also be on immunosuppressive medications but are not affected by abnormal blood sugars. This will allow investigators to develop an understanding of how these immunosuppressive medications affect glucose metabolism (blood sugar levels) and insulin utilization (how the body uses insulin).

Description

If Islet Cell transplants are to become a reasonable treatment alternative for patients with type 1 diabetes, there must be knowledge about how the islet cells function after transplant {islet cells are responsible for making the insulin the body needs in order to control blood sugar). This knowledge would allow for improvements in the islet cell transplant procedure itself, as well as possible alterations of the immunosuppressive medications (drugs that prevent rejection) that are prescribed. There are two basic kinds of diabetes, type 1 (formally known as Insulin Dependent or Juvenile diabetes) and type 2 (formally known as Adult-Onset or Non-insulin dependent) diabetes. The patients in this study will be affected by type 1 diabetes. After the transplant, it is hoped they will no longer need insulin injections. It is possible patients may need to take pioglitazone and/or metformin, however, this will be prescribed in Project 1, if needed.

The medications used for this study include: C-peptide. This is a synthetic product (not from human or animal sources) that is man-made and identical to the C-peptide made by the body. C-peptide is made at the same time as insulin, one molecule of insulin equals one molecule C-peptide. By giving C-peptide that is synthetic, researchers can measure how the C-peptide breaks down in the body, which could then be related to how insulin breaks down in the body. Somatostatin will also be used during the same test as the C-peptide. While receiving Somatostatin, the production of insulin by the patient will be stopped. This medication will only be given for 4 hours and the blood sugar will be monitored during the entire procedure. Insulin & Glucose will also be given by IV during certain tests to regulate the blood sugar. Blood sugars will be maintained within a certain level and this will be achieved through the administration of insulin and/or glucose. The patient's blood sugar will be monitored at frequent intervals throughout the various procedures.

Study Design

Observational Model: Defined Population, Observational Model: Natural History, Time Perspective: Longitudinal, Time Perspective: Prospective

Conditions

Diabetes Mellitus

Location

Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis
Missouri
United States
63110

Status

Active, not recruiting

Source

National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:56:49-0400

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A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

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Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).

A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).

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