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Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat Systemic Mastocytosis

2014-08-27 03:57:19 | BioPortfolio

Summary

This study will investigate the safety and effectiveness of an experimental stem cell transplant procedure for treating mastocytosis-a disease of abnormal mast cell growth. Patients often feel faint, have skin problems, joint and bone pain, low blood counts and enlarged liver, spleen or lymph nodes. As yet, there is no cure for mastocytosis, and treatment is aimed at controlling symptoms.

Stem cells are cells produced by the bone marrow that mature into the different blood components-white cells, red cells and platelets. Transplantation of allogeneic (donated) stem cells is a mainstay of therapy for some forms of leukemia. Patients first receive intensive chemotherapy and radiation to rid the body of cancer cells. This "conditioning" is followed by transplantation of donated stem cells to generate new, healthy bone marrow. In addition to producing the new bone marrow, the donated cells also fight any residual tumor cells that might have remained in the body. This is called a "graft-versus-tumor" effect. This study will examine whether a stem cell transplant from a healthy donor can similarly target and destroy mast cells in a "graft-versus-mast cell" effect. Also, to try to reduce the harmful side effects of chemotherapy and radiation, this study will use lower dose chemotherapy and no radiation.

Patients with advanced mastocytosis between 10 and 80 years old may be eligible for this study. They will be

tested for HLA type matching with a sibling and will undergo a medical history, physical examination and several tests to determine eligibility for the study.

Participants will undergo apheresis to collect lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) for immune function tests. In this procedure, blood is drawn through a needle in the arm, similar to donating a unit of blood. The lymphocytes are then separated and collected by a cell separator machine, and the rest of the blood is returned through a needle in the other arm. Patients will also have a central venous line (flexible plastic tube) placed in their upper chest leading to a vein. This line will remain in place throughout the transplant and recovery period and will be used to transfuse blood components, administer medicines, infuse the donated stem cells, and draw blood for tests. Patients will begin conditioning with cyclophosphamide, starting 7 days before the transplant, and fludarabine, starting 5 days before the transplant, to prevent rejection of the donated cells. From 1 to 3 days after the chemotherapy is completed, the stem cells will be transfused through the central venous line. Also, from 4 days before the transplantation until about 3 months after the procedure, patients will receive cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil-drugs that help prevent both rejection of the donated cells and attack by the donor cells on the patient's cells (called graft-versus-host disease).

Patients will stay in the hospital about 20 to 30 days after the transplant. After discharge, they will continue to take antibiotics, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil at home. If the mastocytosis progresses, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil will be tapered over 4 weeks. If the mastocytosis persists, patients may receive additional transfusions of donor lymphocytes to help kill the mast cells.

Patients' progress will be followed weekly or twice weekly for 3 months, then at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48 and 60 months after transplant, and then twice a year for various tests, treatments and examinations.

Description

Mastocytosis is a disease characterized by excessive numbers of mast cells in skin, bone marrow and internal organs such as liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Its genesis appears to be related to somatic mutations in c-kit, the receptor for mast cell growth factor. Although most patients present with the indolent form of the disease, approximately one-third of the patients have an associated hematologic disorder such as a myeloproliferative state or myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients with advanced forms of the disease, including those with an associated hematologic disorder have a poorer prognosis than those with indolent disease. There is no treatment known to cure or improve the natural course of mastocytosis. Since mast cells arise in the bone marrow from a CD34+ progenitor, bone marrow transplantation may offer the only hope for a cure.

In this protocol, we propose to treat patients with advanced forms of mastocytosis with an allogeneic stem cell transplant from an HLA-identical sibling, using a low intensity non-myeloablative regimen. This approach has the advantage of decreasing the transplant-related toxicity while allowing adequate immunosuppression to establish stem cell and lymphocyte engraftment. Donor derived CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, which are important in killing of leukemic cells by mounting a "graft versus leukemia" effect, should be useful in the elimination of aberrant mast cells and their progenitors, that is "graft-versus-mast cell effect". This mechanism may be particularly relevant in mastocytosis as point mutations of c-kit may constitute an antigenically distinct T-cell target for recognition by the engrafted donor cells.

The primary end point of this study is regression of mastocytosis. The secondary end points are engraftment, hematologic response, degree of donor-host chimerism, incidence and severity of acute and chronic GVHD, transplant related morbidity and mortality, relapse, disease free survival, and overall survival.

Study Design

Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Mastocytosis

Intervention

Stem cell transplantation

Location

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda
Maryland
United States
20892

Status

Completed

Source

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:57:19-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.

The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.

The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.

Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).

Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.

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