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Sexual intercourse between men and women is the main way HIV is transmitted. About 90 percent of HIV infections in women are caused by sexual intercourse. Also, hormonal birth controls are widely used. This study hopes to find out whether hormonal birth control changes the risk of women becoming infected with HIV.
Heterosexual intercourse is the primary mode of HIV transmission worldwide and accounts for about 90% of HIV infections in women. Hormonal contraceptives including COCs and injectables are among the most widely used contraceptives in the world. Understanding the impact of hormonal contraception on HIV transmission is a critical unanswered public health question. Because of the critical nature of this issue to women of reproductive age worldwide, a methodologically sound study must be undertaken. It must be determined if hormonal contraceptive use increases the risk of HIV infection and the magnitude of the association, if it exists.
This study takes place in Thailand, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. HIV-seronegative women continue using their current birth control method (low dose COC, DMPA injections, or non-hormonal contraceptive methods [condoms, sterilization, or no modern contraception method]) for the duration of the study. They are followed every 12 weeks for a minimum of 15 months and a maximum of 24 months, or until seroconversion. Pelvic exams, including Pap smears, are done, blood samples are drawn, and vaginal and cervical specimens are tested for any sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women are provided with free treatment for any STDs that are diagnosed. They complete a questionnaire on sexual behavior and contraceptive history; counseling on contraceptive use and reducing HIV risk is provided.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel, Medroxyprogesterone acetate
Research Triangle Park
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:57:24-0400
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ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)
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