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To confirm the preliminary findings of age, race, and hypertension chronicity effects on opioid and cardiovascular responses to stress and to determine the opioid mechanisms mediating these effects using an opioid receptor blockade strategy.
Opioids exert depressor effects on cardiovascular responses through sympathetic nervous system inhibition. Research suggests that opioid inhibition of sympathetic activity may be compromised in hypertension. Preliminary studies by the Principal Investigator suggest that the nature of this compromise may be influenced by age and race. Additionally, literature suggests that hypertension chronicity may modulate opioid sympathoinhibitory actions. The receptor mechanisms mediating the observed modulating effects of age, race, and hypertension chronicity on opioidergic inhibition and regulation of blood pressure remained to be determined.
Two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of naltrexone hydrochloride, an oral opiate antagonist, on adrenergically-mediated cardiovascular responses in older and younger, Black and White normotensives and hypertensives with varying lengths of hypertension duration. Cardiovascular and opioid responses were measured in response to a stressor combined with either placebo or naltrexone pretreatment. Results from these studies assisted in (a) elucidating opioidergic mechanisms underlying the increased rates of hypertension morbidity and mortality among Blacks and the elderly, and (b) ultimately optimized the design of pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of hypertension.
Observational Model: Natural History
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:57:51-0400
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Even most industrialised countries exhibit a growing and aging population of HIV...
This study evaluates the effects of different volumes of aerobic exercise training in cardiovascular parameters of patients with cardiovascular diseases enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitatio...
The purpose of this study is to better understand the association between the postprandial biomarker responses after a food challenge with the development of cardiovascular diseases in hea...
To develop a comprehensive protocol for assessing cardiovascular reactivity to stressors, for use in epidemiological and clinical investigations of cardiovascular diseases in healthy popul...
The Silesian Cardiovascular Database is an observational study of all patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular diseases. The date include information on the clinical characteristics, tr...
Although alexithymia has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, studies are scarce and a causal relationship is questionable. This study explored the prospective association bet...
To examine the trend of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors among a Middle Eastern population with prevalent CVD during a median follow up of 12 years.
Cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is of major interest to identify sensitive molecular markers that predict cardiovascular events and point to therapeutic...
Cardiovascular diseases are life-threatening illnesses with high morbidity and mortality. Suppressed vagal (parasympathetic) activity and increased sympathetic activity are involved in these diseases....
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. The four main types of noncommunicable diseases are CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (e.g., heart attacks and stroke), CANCER, chronic respiratory diseases (e.g., CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and ASTHMA) and DIABETES MELLITUS.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, life-threatening disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries between the heart and lungs of affected individuals. Symptoms can range from mild breathles...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...