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To determine whether objectively recorded sleep durations were mortality risk factors, whether sleep duration could be distinguished from depression as a risk factor in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) data, and whether sleep-associated risks were attributable to specific pathophysiologic processes such as sleep apnea, circadian rhythm phase advances, or deficiencies of melatonin, or deficiencies of reproductive steroids. The study was ancillary to the WHI.
Both reported short sleep and reported long sleep are major predictors of excess mortality risk, but the importance of reported sleep duration as a risk factor is not yet known. Sleep-related risks are of special interest to The Women's Health Initiative (WHI), because insomnia increases among women at menopause, and because WHI's hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and dietary modification (DM) may influence sleep. The WHI is an exciting opportunity to examine whether risks associated with reported sleep durations can be explained by a selection of intercurrent conditions, but the broad WHI design does not control for important potential confounders. Explicitly, the broad WHI design by itself cannot determine if behaviorally-modifiable objective sleep durations are the primary risk factor.
This ancillary project supplemented the WHI Observational Study (OS) by performing additional examinations on 600 San Diego OS women. These volunteers underwent home sleep recordings, hormone measurement, and detailed psychiatric interviews. To facilitate distinction of affective and sleep factors in WHI outcomes, the types and severity of depression in the OS subsample and the validity and reliability of sleep items in questionnaires given to WHI women were examined.
Observational Model: Natural History
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:57:52-0400
To assess the effects of weight loss on sleep disordered breathing in obese, Type 2 diabetics with obstructive sleep apnea.
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is high in the Veteran population. If not treated promptly, sleep apnea may result in daytime fatigue which may lead to increased prevalence of ac...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether patients with obstructive sleep apnea have any changes in left atrial morphology and function evaluated by echocardiography three dimensio...
The study aims to develop and test a user-friendly, accessible approach to sleep assessment which can function as an initial "triage" of targeted sleep conditions, such as insomnia, insuff...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of different methods of providing education about sleep apnea and continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) use and how that edu...
Sleep apnea is an underdiagnosed condition in patients with heart failure. Efficient identification of sleep apnea is needed as treatment may improve heart failure-related outcomes. Currently, use of ...
Sleep apnea has been associated with anxiety, but the mechanisms of the sleep apnea-anxiety relationship are unresolved. Sleep apnea causes oxidative stress, which might enhance anxiety-like behavior ...
Sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, and treatment may improve outcomes. We examine national burden of sleep apnea, rates of sleep apnea treatment, and whether racial/ethnic disparities exist ...
Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) is a diagnostic measure for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in moderate/high risk patients. Some HSAT companies contain automatic analysis (AA). Howev...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) contributes to all-cause mortality. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine task force is focusing on improving detection and categorization of OSA symptoms and severity to...
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...