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To modify and expand an existing pharmacokinetic model for nasal dose as well as to develop a new model to estimate tracheobronchial dose of an active agent for each subject in a study of acute respiratory health effects.
Epidemiologic analysis of acute, reversible respiratory health effects is uncommonly performed, yet these are important health outcomes because acute responses by the respiratory defense system appear to represent one end of the continuum toward progressive, chronic and potentially disabling physiologic changes. Repeatable epidemiologic studies of dose-response relationships necessitate accurate measures of 'dose'. However, in occupational and environmental settings, exposure to a toxin is seldom found at identical concentrations and/or particle sizes among persons with the same activity patterns. In addition, air concentration does not account for factors such as clearance or metabolism which may alter the biologically effective tissue dose. These factors cause the target tissue dose of the toxin to vary greatly despite exposure to similar air concentrations.
The results of these toxicokinetic models were individual measures of tissue dose used in a 2-stage epidemiologic analysis which placed special emphasis on the definition of individual dose-response curves for exposure to an irritant dust, sodium borate, and the reversible effects of peak expiratory flow and irritant symptoms. A primary advantage of the two stage epidemiologic approach was that it permitted particular attention to be focused on the factors which determined the sensitivity (threshold) and reactivity (slope) for an individual. The use of tissue dose estimates were also compared to simple exposure measurements in the epidemiologic analysis to evaluate the efficacy of using dosimetric methods in epidemiologic studies.
Observational Model: Natural History
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:57:52-0400
Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are a group of diseases affecting the lung interstitium. The lung scarring that occurs in ILD is often irreversible with only mitigating therapy available ...
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A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
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Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...