Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Patients with classical hemophilia (hemophilia A) and Christmas disease (hemophilia B) were exposed to many hepatotropic viruses during the course of their therapy. Severe chronic hepatitis among these patients was most likely related to persistent infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, or delta hepatitis virus, a defective RNA virus which is dependent upon coinfection with HBV for essential helper functions. Carriers of HBV could contract an acute delta hepatitis infection that was invariably more severe than the illness caused by HBV alone. The morbidity and mortality of delta hepatitis infection was remarkably high. Transmission of the delta hepatitis agent appeared to follow the same routes of transmission as HBV. Direct parenteral inoculation was the classic mode of transmission of HBV which suggested a similar mode of transmission for delta hepatitis.
In 1986, hemophiliacs treated with commercial concentrates of coagulation factors prepared from pools of plasma were at great risk to contract delta hepatitis infection. About 50 percent of these patients had delta hepatitis virus antibodies. Also, studies of small cohorts indicated that hepatitis delta infection was a major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Therefore, there was a critical need to evaluate the frequency and effect of hepatitis delta infection in hemophiliacs, comparing those with presumed chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis, chronic hepatitis B alone, and combined chronic delta and HBV infections.
The project was awarded in response to a Request for Applications issued in 1986 on The Prevalence and Consequences of Hepatitis Delta Infection in Hemophiliacs. The concept for the initiative originated in the Blood Resources Working Group of the Blood Diseases and Resources Advisory Committee and was approved by The National Heart, Lung, and Blood, Advisory Council in February 1985.
The study was conducted collaboratively within the seven hemophilia treatment centers which comprised the Southeastern Hemophilia Group. Upon entry into the study, patient data were collected on transfusion and factor concentrate therapy, age, race, type of hemophilia, sex, homosexuality, drug abuse and HTLV-III antibody status. Liver function was assessed noninvasively. Since available tests for HDV infection had limited sensitively and were not necessarily specific for HDV persistence, HDV RNA was detected in serum by molecular hybridization using cloned HDV cDNA and single-stranded RNA probes. Western blot analysis was used to assess antibody responses to HDV. A multifactorial analysis of clinical and virological data was conducted at the end of the first year of the study. Patients were reevaluated clinically and virologically at six month intervals to ascertain risk factors for acquisition of HBV and HDV infections, and to assess the prevalence and rate of progression of liver disease in each group. Follow-up of patients in Group E, that is, those who had not been previously transfused, allowed an assessment of the efficacy of current control measures such as HBV immunization and use of heat-treated factor concentrates for prevention of viral infections in hemophiliacs.
Observational Model: Natural History
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:57:53-0400
Currently, no cures or disease modifying therapies exist for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is partially due to the inability to detect the disease before it has progressed to a stage wher...
The purpose of this study is to learn more about Gaucher disease. The information we collect from medical histories and a blood sample from people with Gaucher disease may help us pinpoint...
A new study have shown that high nighttime blood pressure (BP) and/or non-dipping (lack of fall in blood pressure during nighttime) is a strong predictor for the risk of cardiovascular dis...
Severe peripheral vascular disease of the legs causes narrowing of the blood vessels in the legs, which keeps the blood from flowing adequately through these vessels. This study is desig...
Blood pressure may be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage-renal-disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Although a ...
High blood pressure (BP) is the most important risk factor for death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. The optimal cutoff for treatment of high BP is debated.
Blood is arguably the most important bodily fluid and its analysis provides crucial health status information. A first routine measure to narrow down diagnosis in clinical practice is the differential...
Substantial progress has been made in the discovery of blood biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects more than 4 million worldwide. Olfactory dysf...
To compare blood T1 estimation approaches used for quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) with arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI in a developmental cohort of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patien...
In the kidney disease clinic setting, higher-than-usual blood pressure is often ascribed to recent dietary sodium indiscretion. While clinical trials demonstrate a clear relationship between salt inta...
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
A disease characterized by the progressive invasion of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS into the LYMPHATIC VESSELS, and the BLOOD VESSELS. The majority of the cases occur in the LUNGS of women of child-bearing age, eventually blocking the flow of air, blood, and lymph. The common symptom is shortness of breath (DYSPNEA).
An X-linked inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of lysosomal ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE A. It is characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and other GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in blood vessels throughout the body leading to multi-system complications including renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and skin disorders.
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...