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OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate the efficacy of surgical resection of an identifiable zone of cortical abnormality versus multiple drug therapy in children with infantile spasms refractory to standard therapy.
II. Assess how infantile spasms interfere with development and whether this is partially reversible.
III. Determine the predictors of good surgical outcome and whether surgery permanently controls seizures and improves development.
PROTOCOL OUTLINE: This is a randomized study. Patients are randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. The first group undergoes sequential antiepileptic therapy with pyridoxine, corticotropin, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and nitrazepam. The sequence of administration may be altered based on drugs taken prior to entry. Any drug may be omitted due to medical contraindications or prior use at study doses or higher.
The second group undergoes surgical resection of the zone of cortical abnormality. A functional hemispherectomy is performed for hemiparesis or diffuse unihemispheric dysfunction.
If seizures are controlled in the first group at 3 months, the current medication is maintained; if seizures are not controlled, sequential therapy continues to completion. Patients experiencing uncontrolled seizures at 6 months cross to surgery.
Surgical patients experiencing uncontrolled seizures at 3 months or persistent seizures after taper of pre-study antiepileptics cross to drug therapy.
All patients are followed at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years.
Allocation: Randomized, Primary Purpose: Treatment
carbamazepine, corticotropin, nitrazepam, pyridoxine, valproic acid, Surgery
Office of Rare Diseases (ORD)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:58:12-0400
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West syndrome is a catastrophic epilepsy syndrome characterized by infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and developmental arrest or regression.
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Infantile spasms are the defining seizures of West syndrome, a severe form of early life epilepsy with poorly-understood pathophysiology. We present a novel comparative analysis of infants with spasms...
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
A condition characterized by persistent spasms (SPASM) involving multiple muscles, primarily in the lower limbs and trunk. The illness tends to occur in the fourth to sixth decade of life, presenting with intermittent spasms that become continuous. Minor sensory stimuli, such as noise and light touch, precipitate severe spasms. Spasms do not occur during sleep and only rarely involve cranial muscles. Respiration may become impaired in advanced cases. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1492; Neurology 1998 Jul;51(1):85-93)
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