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Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Rhabdomyosarcoma

2014-07-23 21:56:55 | BioPortfolio

Summary

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and topotecan, use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. It is not yet known which combination chemotherapy regimen is more effective in treating rhabdomyosarcoma.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is comparing two different combination chemotherapy regimens to see how well each works in treating patients with previously untreated rhabdomyosarcoma or sarcoma.

Description

OBJECTIVES:

- Compare the early response rates, failure-free survival, and survival of patients with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) vs VAC alternating with vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide.

- Compare the acute and late effects of these two treatment regimens in these patients.

- Determine the rate of second-look surgery in selected patients with bulk residual tumor at diagnosis (i.e., Clinical Group III) and the proportion of these that render the patient tumor free or with microscopic tumor only.

- Determine the rate of local failure in selected patients with bulk residual tumors at diagnosis (i.e., Clinical Group III) who, after second-look resection, have response-adjusted radiotherapy dose reduction.

- Determine if preoperative radiotherapy followed by second-look surgery is feasible for selected patients with bulk residual disease (i.e., Clinical Group III) who respond poorly to induction chemotherapy.

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to disease (embryonal histology, stage II or III, Clinical Group III vs embryonal histology, Clinical Group IV, less than 10 years of age vs alveolar or undifferentiated sarcoma histology, stage I, Clinical Group I vs alveolar or undifferentiated sarcoma histology, stage II or III, Clinical Group II or III). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

- Arm I: Patients receive vincristine IV over 5-10 minutes once a week on weeks 0-12, 15, 18-24, 27, 30-36, and 39. Dactinomycin IV is administered over 15-20 minutes once a week on weeks 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, and 39. Cyclophosphamide IV is administered over 30-60 minutes once a week on weeks 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, and 39. After the initial 12 weeks of chemotherapy, depending on tumor shrinkage, patients may undergo surgery. After recovery from surgery, patients receive radiotherapy once a day, 5 days a week, during weeks 12-18. For patients receiving radiotherapy during weeks 0-6, dactinomycin is omitted during weeks 3 and 6 and administered during weeks 15 and 18. For patients receiving radiotherapy during weeks 12-18, dactinomycin is omitted during weeks 15 and 18. Patients showing an adequate response at week 24 continue chemotherapy during weeks 24-39.

Patients with Clinical Group III tumors of a parameningeal site with documented evidence of intracranial extension receive radiotherapy within the first 2 weeks of the initiation of the first course of chemotherapy (day 0).

Patients with Clinical Group II parameningeal tumors and Clinical Group III parameningeal tumors with base of skull erosion and/or cranial nerve palsy without evidence of intracranial extension receive radiotherapy on week 12 (day 84) or immediately thereafter.

Patients with Clinical Group IV parameningeal tumors with distant metastases receive radiotherapy to the primary site on week 12 (day 84). Patients with distant metastases confined to one site may receive radiotherapy to the metastatic site concurrently with therapy to the primary site if it began within 2 weeks of the initiation of chemotherapy (day 0).

- Arm II: Patients receive treatment as in arm I, except dactinomycin is replaced with topotecan IV over 15-30 minutes daily for 5 days during weeks 3, 9, 21, 27, 33, and 39.

All patients receive filgrastim (G-CSF) or sargramostim (GM-CSF) subcutaneously beginning 24 hours after completion of each course of chemotherapy and continuing 1 year, until hematopoietic recovery.

Patients are followed every 1-2 months for 1 year, every 3 months for 1 year, every 6 months for 1 year, and then annually thereafter.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 518 patients will be accrued for this study within 5 years.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Sarcoma

Intervention

dactinomycin, filgrastim, sargramostim, cyclophosphamide, topotecan hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, surgical procedure, radiation therapy

Location

Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham
Alabama
United States
35233

Status

Completed

Source

National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:56:55-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)

Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.

An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.

Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.

An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 3.1.6.12.

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