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Interferon Gamma to Treat Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type I

2014-08-27 03:59:24 | BioPortfolio

Summary

This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the drug, interferon gamma, in treating leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD I). Patients with this inherited immune disorder do not have enough proteins called adhesion molecules on their infection-fighting white blood cells, impairing the ability of these cells to get to the site of infection. As a result, patients have recurrent infections of soft tissues, such as the skin, gums and gastrointestinal tract, and poor wound healing. Infants with severe LAD I often die from multiple infections. Interferon gamma may increase the number of adhesion molecules on white blood cells, and thus improve their function.

Patients with LAD I who weigh more than 13 kilograms (28.5 pounds) may be eligible for this study. Candidates will have personal and family medical histories taken, a physical examination, blood and urine tests and a chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan.

Participants will receive injections of interferon gamma under the skin 3 times a week for 3 months. Adult patients will be taught how to give their own injections (similar to insulin injections for diabetes) and parents will be taught how to administer the shots to their child. Blood samples, usually be between 30 to 90 milliliters (2 to 6 tablespoons), will be drawn just before starting medication and again 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 4 months after therapy begins. At these same time intervals, patients will provide a salt-water mouth rinse specimen, which will be tested for changes in the number of white blood cells during interferon gamma treatment.

Patients will be admitted to the NIH Clinical Center for inpatient evaluations at the start of therapy and again after 1 week, 1month, 3 months and 4 months. The initial screening visit will take a few days and subsequent visits will take 1 to 2 days.

Description

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD I) is a primary immunodeficiency disease resulting from mutations in the gene encoding CD18. Markedly reduced or absent expression of the leukocyte integrin component CD18 causes significant impairment in leukocyte mobilization to inflammatory sites. Clinically, patients have marked leukocytosis and recurrent infections involving soft tissues such as skin, the gastrointestinal tract and gingiva. Death due to infections in early infancy is common with the severe form of LAD I (CD18 expression less than 0.5%), but patients with the moderate phenotype (CD18 expression 1-10%) may survive into young adulthood. To date, therapy consists of antibiotic treatment for infections and bone marrow transplantation when possible. LAD I is also a candidate for future gene therapy. Recently, it has been shown that in vivo administration of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) upregulates CD18 expression in normals and alters leukocyte trafficking. We hypothesize that modest increases in CD18 expression in LAD I patients with the moderate phenotype or alterations in CD18 independent trafficking could result in detectable clinical changes and possible clinical improvement.

Study Design

Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome

Intervention

Interferon gamma

Location

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Bethesda
Maryland
United States
20892

Status

Completed

Source

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:24-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.

Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.

A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.

Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.

The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.

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