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Recent research studies of early onset-obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome have questioned whether autoimmunity could play a role in the development of these conditions. As a result, there has been an increased interest in the field of research on the potential involvement of autoimmunity in other psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia.
Autoimmune conditions occur when the normal immune system of the body begins working against itself. The immune system recognizes cells as foreign and begins to attack them.
There are several similarities between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia. Genetics play some role in the development of both diseases. Both conditions show a similar course, and both conditions tend to show worsening of symptoms when exposed to stress.
Previous research studies have shown intravenous immunoglobulin to be safe and effective when used in neurologic diseases involving the immune system. Presently the NIMH is testing the effectiveness of IVIg in OCD and Tourette's syndrome.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin IVIg is a medication that has been used to treat diseases like Kawasaki disease, systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lupus nephritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The drug modifies the body's natural immune reactions.
This research study is a 13-week trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) on patients suffering from childhood-onset schizophrenia, who have failed to respond to other therapies.
Recent developments in the study of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome have implicated an autoimmune etiology in a subset of these conditions, and renewed interest into the possibility of autoimmune pathophysiology underlying other psychiatric disorders. There are several clinical and epidemiologic similarities between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia: genetic predisposition, but with twin concordance below 50%; waxing and waning course; exacerbation of symptoms or precipitation of relapse by psychosocial stress. However, other mixed evidence has engendered considerable debate in the literature regarding the role of immune mechanisms in schizophrenia. The clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in immune-mediated neurological diseases has been documented, and clinical studies of the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of both Tourette's syndrome and OCD are currently ongoing at the NIMH (see protocol 92-M-0132). In this protocol, we propose a 13-week placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study of IVIg in 25 patients suffering from treatment-refractory childhood-onset schizophrenia. After the first 5 patients have completed the trial, this data will be presented to the NIMH Institutional Review Board and a decision will be made as to whether this trial should proceed.
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Primary Purpose: Treatment
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:58:37-0400
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Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Autoimmune disease characterized by subepidermal blisters and linear deposition of autoantibodies at the dermoepidermal junction. The accumulated autoantibodies are of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and occasionally IMMUNOGLOBULIN G classes against epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE proteins. The dermatosis is sometimes associated with malignancies and use of certain drugs (e.g., VANCOMYCIN).
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