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This study is divided into two parts. The first part of the study will use MRI technology to view the brain structure of patients with neurological disorders and normal volunteers. This portion of the study will attempt to detect specific areas of damage in the brains of patients with amnesia and dementia. It will also try to correlate the amount of brain damage with performance on tests used to measure memory.
In the second part of the study, researchers plan to use MRI technology to study brain function of patients with neurological disorders and normal volunteers when they perform tasks. MRI signals during task performance will be used to record areas of the brain receiving more blood flow indicating increased activity.
Researchers believe this study will help improve existing methods of evaluating patients with neurological disorders. In addition, this study may contribute information about areas of the brain involved in thought processing and motor and sensory function.
We wish to use MRI technology to study brain structure (Part 1) and function (Part 2) in several neurological disorders and in normal controls. In Part 1 of this protocol, we describe our interest in using detailed MRI brain structure analysis to identify predicted specific neural structure atrophy in patients with selective amnesia and dementia and to attempt to associate the magnitude of atrophy in these neural structures with performance on selected memory tests. In Part 2 of this protocol, we outline our interest in utilizing newly developed MRI techniques to identify selective changes in local brain blood volume, blood flow, and other physiological parameters during functional stimulation. Recent developments permit recording of MRI signals that are indicative of regional cerebral blood volume and blood flow changes. Local changes in these physiological measures appear to topographically overlap with expected areas of functional brain activation. The advantage of this method over Positron Emission Tomography is the exquisite spatial resolution of MRI. This MRI technique is new and has had only limited use so far. The studies in Part 2 of this protocol should help develop the method and begin to answer fundamental biological and functional questions about the representation and activation of cognitive, motor, and sensory functions.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:39-0400
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Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
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