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Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Study of Patients With Neurological Disorders

2014-08-27 03:59:39 | BioPortfolio

Summary

This study is divided into two parts. The first part of the study will use MRI technology to view the brain structure of patients with neurological disorders and normal volunteers. This portion of the study will attempt to detect specific areas of damage in the brains of patients with amnesia and dementia. It will also try to correlate the amount of brain damage with performance on tests used to measure memory.

In the second part of the study, researchers plan to use MRI technology to study brain function of patients with neurological disorders and normal volunteers when they perform tasks. MRI signals during task performance will be used to record areas of the brain receiving more blood flow indicating increased activity.

Researchers believe this study will help improve existing methods of evaluating patients with neurological disorders. In addition, this study may contribute information about areas of the brain involved in thought processing and motor and sensory function.

Description

We wish to use MRI technology to study brain structure (Part 1) and function (Part 2) in several neurological disorders and in normal controls. In Part 1 of this protocol, we describe our interest in using detailed MRI brain structure analysis to identify predicted specific neural structure atrophy in patients with selective amnesia and dementia and to attempt to associate the magnitude of atrophy in these neural structures with performance on selected memory tests. In Part 2 of this protocol, we outline our interest in utilizing newly developed MRI techniques to identify selective changes in local brain blood volume, blood flow, and other physiological parameters during functional stimulation. Recent developments permit recording of MRI signals that are indicative of regional cerebral blood volume and blood flow changes. Local changes in these physiological measures appear to topographically overlap with expected areas of functional brain activation. The advantage of this method over Positron Emission Tomography is the exquisite spatial resolution of MRI. This MRI technique is new and has had only limited use so far. The studies in Part 2 of this protocol should help develop the method and begin to answer fundamental biological and functional questions about the representation and activation of cognitive, motor, and sensory functions.

Study Design

N/A

Conditions

Amnesia

Location

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Bethesda
Maryland
United States
20892

Status

Completed

Source

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:39-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)

Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)

A syndrome characterized by a transient loss of the ability to form new memories. It primarily occurs in middle aged or elderly individuals, and episodes may last from minutes to hours. During the period of amnesia, immediate and recent memory abilities are impaired, but the level of consciousness and ability to perform other intellectual tasks are preserved. The condition is related to bilateral dysfunction of the medial portions of each TEMPORAL LOBE. Complete recovery normally occurs, and recurrences are unusual. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp429-30)

A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.

Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)

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