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This study is designed to use positron emission tomography to measure brain energy use. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique used to investigate the functional activity of the brain. The PET technique allows doctors to study the normal processes of the brain (central nervous system) of normal individuals and patients with neurologic illnesses without physical / structural damage to the brain.
When a region of the brain is active, it uses more fuel in the form of oxygen and sugar (glucose). As the brain uses more fuel it produces more waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Blood carries fuel to the brain and waste products away from the brain. As brain activity increases blood flow to and from the area of activity increases also.
Researchers can label a sugar with a small radioactive molecule called FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose). As areas of the brain use more sugar the PET scan will detect the FDG and show the areas of the brain that are active. By using this technique researchers hope to answer the following questions;
4. Are changes in brain energy use (metabolism) present early in the course of epilepsy
5. Do changes in brain metabolism match the severity of patient's seizures
6. Do changes in metabolism occur over time or in response to drug therapy
We propose to study children with recent onset partial epilepsy, cryptogenic infantile spasms, and idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome with serial FDG-PET to elucidate the natural history and evolution of metabolic abnormalities associated with such epilepsies. The severity of the seizure disorder, and cognitive impairment, when present, will be correlated with the presence and extent of focal and global cerebral metabolic abnormalities.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:40-0400
This study will assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive treatment with LEV (3,000 mg/day or a target dose of 60 mg/kg/day in children) compared to placebo in reducing P...
The study aimed to study the correlation between periodic limb movement occurring during sleep and the different parameters of genetic generalized epilepsy
An open-label, follow-up study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV), in children (≥ 4 years old), adolescents and adults suffering from primary generalized seizure...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of perampanel administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion after switching from oral tablets (8 to 12 milligrams per...
A double-blind trial comparing the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam to carbamazepine used as monotherapy in subjects (≥ 16 years) newly or recently diagnosed as suffering from epilep...
Dysexecutive traits have been described in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), but studies mainly focused on juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). To better understand the neuropsychology of IGE, more...
Theory of Mind (ToM) is a critical component of social cognition, and thus, its impairment may adversely affect social functioning and quality of life. Recent evidence has suggested that it is impaire...
Previous studies have suggested that GABARG2 (Gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A Receptor Gamma 2 subunit) could be a gene of interest in genetic epilepsy; through possible associations with increased epi...
Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) account for most of the burden of epilepsy, and they have poor prognosis in seizure control, higher morbidity, and mortality.
To investigate the brain microstructural abnormalities in epilepsy patients with postictal generalized electroencephalographic suppression (PGES) using a cortical surface-based analysis.
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of brain function characterized by recurrent seizures that have a sudden onset. (Oxford Medical Dictionary). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain, causing a tempora...