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VZV is the virus that causes chickenpox. If this virus is reactivated in the body, it can also cause shingles. Shingles is common in children with HIV who have had chickenpox, although it is usually not life-threatening. The VZV vaccine used in this study may be able to prevent HIV-positive children who have had chickenpox from developing shingles.
Varicella (chickenpox) results from primary infection with VZV. Varicella, a common and usually benign illness in normal children, is more severe in HIV-infected children and may result in other conditions such as HZ (shingles). HZ is due to reactivation of latent VZV acquired during varicella and is common in HIV-infected children who have had natural varicella. While HZ is not likely to be life-threatening in these children, it does cause considerable morbidity and interferes with quality of life. Use of a live-attenuated VZV vaccine may be able to boost immunity in these children.
Two immunologic cohorts are enrolled. Cohort A includes children with a CD4 cell percentage greater than or equal to 20 percent that has been documented as stable for at least the 6 months prior to the time varicella developed (confirmed by a minimum of 2 tests) and a CD4 cell percentage greater than [AS PER AMENDMENT 10/27/99: or equal to] 15 percent that has been documented as stable for at least the 6 months prior to enrollment (confirmed by a minimum of 2 tests). Cohort B includes children with a CD4 cell percentage greater than or equal to 10 percent and less than 15 percent that has been documented as stable for at least the 6 months prior to the time varicella developed and stable for at least the 6 months prior to enrollment (confirmed by a minimum of 2 tests). [AS PER AMENDMENT 4/20/01: Cohort B includes children who have a CD4 cell percentage less than 15% documented by a minimum of 1 but preferably 2 tests within 1 year of onset of varicella (i.e., within 1 year before to 1 year after varicella) and a CD4 cell percentage greater than or equal to 15% documented by a minimum of 2 tests at the time of enrollment.] A pilot study precedes the full study. [AS PER AMENDMENT 10/27/99: The pilot study for Cohort A precedes the full study for Cohort A and the pilot study for Cohort B. The pilot study for Cohort B precedes the full study for Cohort B.] The pilot study includes 10 children from each cohort who receive live-attenuated VZV at Weeks 0 and 8. If 3 pilot-study patients in a cohort meet a toxicity endpoint related to the vaccine, the dose regimen has failed the safety criteria for that cohort. [AS PER AMENDMENT 10/27/99: If 3 children in the pilot study for Cohort A meet a toxicity endpoint deemed to be related to the vaccine, the dose regimen has failed safety criteria for both cohorts. If 3 children in the pilot phase of Cohort B meet a toxicity endpoint deemed related to the vaccine, the dose regimen has failed the safety criteria for Cohort B.] If, at 12 weeks after immunization, at least 5 pilot-study patients in a cohort respond and the safety profile is deemed adequate, the pilot study extends into a full study with the immunization of an additional 20 patients from that cohort. [AS PER AMENDMENT 10/27/99: If, at Week 12, at least 5 pilot-study patients in Cohort A meet immunologic criteria and the safety profile is deemed adequate, then the full study for Cohort A and the pilot study for Cohort B opens. If the same immunologic and safety criteria are met for the pilot study for Cohort B, then the full study for Cohort B opens.] If either cohort shows an inadequate immunologic response or safety profile, the study team reviews the results to determine if another regimen should be considered. In the full study, patients receive 2 immunizations, at Weeks 0 and 8. Varicella antibody titers and in vitro responder cell frequency (RCF) assays are measured at Weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 52, 78, and 104. Symptoms, HIV progression, and VZV presence are monitored throughout the study.
Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Varicella Virus Vaccine (Live)
Univ of Alabama at Birmingham - Pediatric
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:58:47-0400
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A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
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