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Comparison of Anti HIV Drugs Used Alone or in Combination With Cytosine Arabinoside to Treat Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-Infected Patients

2014-07-23 21:58:48 | BioPortfolio

Summary

To compare the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine plus either didanosine or dideoxycytidine) versus antiretroviral therapy plus intravenous cytarabine (Ara-C) versus antiretroviral therapy plus intrathecal Ara-C in the maintenance or improvement of neurological function over 6 months in HIV-infected individuals who have developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). To compare the effect of these three treatment regimens on Karnofsky score and MRI studies.

The effectiveness of Ara-C in the treatment of PML, caused by a human DNA papovavirus (designated JC virus) infection, has not been determined, although the most encouraging results have occurred with intrathecal administration of the drug.

Description

The effectiveness of Ara-C in the treatment of PML, caused by a human DNA papovavirus (designated JC virus) infection, has not been determined, although the most encouraging results have occurred with intrathecal administration of the drug.

Patients are randomized to receive antiretroviral therapy alone (AZT plus ddI or ddC), antiretroviral therapy plus intravenous Ara-C, or antiretroviral therapy plus intrathecal Ara-C. All patients receive 24 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Beginning at week 2, patients on the intravenous Ara-C arm receive daily infusions of Ara-C over 5 days, with cycles repeating every 21 days. Patients on the intrathecal Ara-C arm receive single administrations of Ara-C at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24. A brain biopsy confirmation or in situ hybridization will be required within 7 days after study entry. Patients are followed every 4 weeks.

Study Design

Primary Purpose: Treatment

Conditions

HIV Infections

Intervention

Filgrastim, Cytarabine, Zidovudine, Zalcitabine, Didanosine

Location

San Francisco AIDS Clinic / San Francisco Gen Hosp
San Francisco
California
United States
941102859

Status

Completed

Source

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-23T21:58:48-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Congener of CYTARABINE that is metabolized to cytarabine and thereby maintains a more constant antineoplastic action.

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.

A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

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