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Some people who have taken azithromycin to prevent MAC (Mycobacterium avium Complex, a bacterial infection common in HIV-infected persons) have been found to carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria (germs that grow despite the presence of drugs used to kill them). The purpose of this study is to see if people who take azithromycin carry more antibiotic-resistant bacteria than people who have chosen to delay MAC preventive therapy.
When bacteria like Streptococcus (a type of bacteria that causes pneumonia and meningitis) are frequently exposed to antibiotics, the bacteria can become resistant to the drugs. MAC preventive therapy uses antibiotics, but this can make it difficult to treat other infections caused by bacteria that have become resistant in HIV-infected persons. If MAC preventive therapy is delayed, Streptococcus in the body may be less likely to develop resistance. Therefore, if the patient does get a Streptococcus infection, it will be easier to treat because it is not resistant to the antibiotics.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media in the United States. Prior to 1987, this organism was uniformly susceptible to penicillin; since then, however, increasing numbers of isolates resistant to penicillin, as well as to other common antibiotics, have been identified. Frequent exposure to antibiotics has been documented as an important risk factor for the emergence of resistant organisms in HIV-infected patients, who are more likely than uninfected people to be colonized with antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. This substudy is the first to examine the effects of withdrawing or delaying the initiation of prophylaxis (in this case, MAC prophylaxis) on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in a prospective manner.
Study participants are a subset of those enrolled in the CR-MAC Protocol (CPCRA 048). Oropharyngeal swabs are taken at baseline and 4 months after randomization, and are used to isolate S. pneumoniae in culture. These isolates are tested for susceptibility to macrolides, penicillin, cephalosporins, quinolones, and TMP-SMX. The rates of pneumococcal colonization at baseline and 4 months after randomization are determined and used to estimate the impact of deferring MAC prophylaxis on carriage of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Infection
Community Consortium / UCSF
Active, not recruiting
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:36:35-0400
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A Randomized, Double-Blind, Comparative Study of Azithromycin Versus Clarithromycin in Combination With Ethambutol for the Treatment of Disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) Infection in AIDs Patients
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A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
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Pneumonia (bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia and double pneumonia) is inflammation (swelling) of the tissue in one or both of your lungs. It is usually caused by an pneumococcal infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. However,...