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Most of the people with HIV in the world today live in southern Africa. Because this population is not likely to use condoms, an HIV-prevention method that women can control is needed. N-9 used in the vagina may help prevent the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Intravaginal application of N-9 may help protect women from HIV and other STD infection. Low rates of condom use in sub-Saharan African populations, which constitute the majority of HIV infections, dictate the need for prophylactic methods women can control.
This trial will be conducted in Zimbabwe and Malawi. The Phase III trial is preceded by a 2-week safety and acceptability pilot study to determine the extent of genital irritation caused by N-9 and the placebo. Following the pilot study and prior to screening for enrollment in the Phase III trial, potential volunteers will participate in a 2-month behavioral counseling program that will encourage the use of condoms. Only participants who decide they cannot or will not be consistent condom users are enrolled in the main study. Study participants are given N-9 gel or placebo to use each time they have vaginal sexual intercourse for 18 to 36 months. Participants have a follow-up evaluation once a month; a pelvic exam and blood tests are performed every third month.
Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Prevention
Research Triangle Park
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:54-0400
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Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
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Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...