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The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of various combinations of anti-HIV drugs in HIV-positive men and women. Patients receive specific combinations of 3 or 4 of the following 6 drugs: didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T) efavirenz (EFV), nelfinavir (NFV), lamivudine (3TC), or zidovudine (ZDV).
Anti-HIV therapy is effective in preventing the spread of HIV in the body. However, patients often experience unpleasant side effects and have difficulties following the dosing schedule. This study looks for combinations of anti-HIV drugs ("cocktails") which will be the most effective with the fewest problems.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy, though effective in the suppression of HIV proliferation, is often complicated by difficulties with adherence and drug toxicity. Various combinations of highly active antiretroviral therapy exist; all have proved efficacious in related trials. The question addressed in this trial is which combination of antiretroviral "cocktails" provides the single greatest advantage in preventing the spread of HIV in the body. In effect, which therapy provides the greatest benefit with the fewest complications.
Step 1: Patients are randomized to 1 of 6 arms:
Arm A: didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), efavirenz (EFV), and nelfinavir (NFV) placebo.
Arm B: ddI, d4T, EFV placebo, and NFV. Arm C: lamivudine (3TC)/zidovudine (ZDV), EFV, and NFV placebo. Arm D: 3TC/ZDV, EFV placebo, and NFV. Arm E: ddI, d4T, EFV, and NFV. Arm F: 3TC/ZDV, EFV, and NFV. Patients with virologic failure on 2 successive measurements or study-drug intolerance discontinue their randomized study therapy and proceed to Step 2. [AS PER AMENDMENT 7/5/00: Patients must switch regimens as soon as possible after confirmation of virologic failure to prevent development of drug resistance.]
Arm A: Patients receive treatment as in Arm D of Step 1. Arm B: Patients receive treatment as in Arm C of Step 1. Arm C: Patients receive treatment as in Arm B of Step 1. Arm D: Patients receive treatment as in Arm A of Step 1. Arms A, B, C, and D: Patients who fail Step 2 treatment proceed to Step 3. Arms E and F: Patients with virologic failure on Step 1 proceed immediately to Step 3.
Step 3 (salvage therapy):
Arm A, B, C, and D: Patients receive indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), ddI, and hydroxyurea (HU).
[AS PER AMENDMENT 7/5/00: Patients now receive treatment on Regimen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. Regimen 1 consists of IDV, ritonavir (RTV), ddI, and HU. Regimen 2 consists of APV, RTV, ddI, and HU. Regimen 3 consists of IDV, RTV, abacavir (ABC), and 3TC/ZDV. Regimen 4 consists of APV, RTV, ABC, and 3TC/ZDV. Regimen 5 consists of IDV, RTV, ABC, d4T, and 3TC. Regimen 6 consists of APV, RTV, ABC, d4T, and 3TC.] Arm E: Patients receive IDV, APV, and 3TC/ZDV. [AS PER AMENDMENT 7/5/00: Patients now receive treatment on Regimen 7 or 8. Regimen 7 consists of IDV, RTV, and 3TC/ZDV. Regimen 8 consists of APV, RTV, and 3TC/ZDV.] Arm F: Patients receive IDV, APV, ddI, and d4T. [AS PER AMENDMENT 7/5/00: Patients now receive treatment on Regimen 9 or 10. Regimen 9 consists of IDV, RTV, ddI, and d4T. Regimen 10 consists of APV, RTV, ddI, and d4T.] [AS PER AMENDMENT 7/5/00: Patients already enrolled in Step 3 before site registration to Version 4.0 of this protocol have the option of receiving 1 of the appropriate new Step 3 regimens as outlined above or staying on their originally assigned Step 3 therapy.] [AS PER AMENDMENT 3/21/01: If virologic failure on Step 1 or 2 is confirmed, then HIV-1 RNA genotype resistance testing (in real-time, if possible) is performed. Patients receive 1 of the Step 3 drug regimens based on the results of the resistance testing.] Patients may co-enroll in metabolic, pharmacologic, immunologic, or adherence substudies.
Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics Study, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Indinavir sulfate, Lamivudine/Zidovudine, Ritonavir, Hydroxyurea, Abacavir sulfate, Amprenavir, Nelfinavir mesylate, Efavirenz, Lamivudine, Stavudine, Zidovudine, Didanosine
Univ of Alabama at Birmingham
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:59:54-0400
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Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 18.104.22.168.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 22.214.171.124.
An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 126.96.36.199.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
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