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One required examination for declaration of death by neurological criteria is the apnea challenge test. The apnea challenge test evaluates the medulla brainstem respiratory center response to a rise in CO2. The current guideline requires arterial sampling of CO2 and therefore either arterial puncture or arterial catheter placement for the examination. Arterial catheter is an invasive monitoring device and is not without complications. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between peripheral venous and arterial blood gas measures and that peripheral venous CO2 measures may be used as alternatives to arterial CO2 measure.The purpose of this study is to evaluate brainstem response during the apnea challenge test to a rise in venous CO2 and correlate it with the rise in arterial measured CO2. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a similar rise between the venous and arterial CO2 during the apnea challenge test and eliminate the necessity of arterial blood sampling for the sole purpose of apnea challenge test in the future.
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
venous blood gas
Long Beach Memorial and Miller Children's & Women's Hospital Long Beach
MemorialCare Health System
Published on BioPortfolio: 2015-07-22T11:38:23-0400
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Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
The long large endothelium-lined venous channel on the top outer surface of the brain. It receives blood from a vein in the nasal cavity, runs backwards, and gradually increases in size as blood drains from veins of the brain and the DURA MATER. Near the lower back of the CRANIUM, the superior sagittal sinus deviates to one side (usually the right) and continues on as one of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES.
A vascular anomaly characterized by a radial or wedge-shaped arrangement of dilated VEINS draining into a larger vein in the brain, spinal cord, or the meninges. Veins in a venous angioma are surrounded by normal nervous tissue, unlike a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA that lacks intervening nervous tissue. Drainage of venous angioma is fully integrated with the body's venous system, therefore, in most cases there is no clinical signs and rare bleeding.
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