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Patients undergoing spine surgery often have considerable pain post-operatively and frequently require opioid medication (Percocet, Norco, oxycodone, morphine, etc.) to control their pain postoperatively. The widespread use of opioids, however, is associated with a number of side effects. These include: sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness and itching amongst others. Some investigators have suggested that anti-inflammatory medications (the same class of medicines as advil, ibuprofen, etc.) and acetaminophen (Tylenol) can reduce the total dose of opioid required postoperatively and, as a result, lower opioid-related side effects.
The purpose of this study is to test this hypothesis and determine if postoperative anti-inflammatory medications and postoperative acetaminophen can reduce the amount of opioid required to control pain following surgery. A secondary goal of this study is to examine if the change in pain medication will lead to decreased overall pain levels, decreased opioid-related side effects and improved function [quicker ambulation with physical therapy (PT), earlier return to work, etc.].
Given the potential for non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen to decrease opioid requirements following spine surgery, the investigators propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial comparing the efficacy of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen (Group A) or IV ketorolac (Group K) versus placebo (Group P). The impact of treatment on perioperative opioid use, opioid-related complications, functional outcomes and rates of pseudarthrosis following 1 or 2 level lumbar fusion surgery will be measured in each group. The specific aims of this study are as follows:
- Specific Aim 1: Determine the impact of IV ketorolac or IV acetaminophen use on immediate postoperative opioid requirements, postoperative pain levels and opiate related symptoms using the Opiate-Related Symptom Distress Scale (ORSDS)
- Specific Aim 2: Determine the impact of IV ketorolac or IV acetaminophen use on functional outcomes defined by return to work, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Veterans Rand-12 (VR-12) Health Survey
The primary outcome is to determine the total postoperative opioid dose (in oral morphine equivalents) in each group. The investigators hypothesize that patients in Group A and Group K will have lower total opioid use, suffer from fewer opiate related symptoms and have similar rates of pseudarthrosis to patients in Group P. The investigators hypothesize that patients in Group A and Group K will have a quicker return to work and improved early functional outcomes although they acknowledge that long term functional outcomes may be the same for all groups.
Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment
Ketorolac, Acetaminophen, Placebo
Not yet recruiting
Hospital for Special Surgery, New York
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-03-08T02:38:23-0500
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The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
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