Efficacy of a Whitening Dentifrice on Tooth Discoloration

2016-04-18 17:38:22 | BioPortfolio


The purpose of this study was to compare the whitening effect of a toothpaste containing blue pigment with a conventional toothpaste and with at-home tooth bleaching; evaluate the subject's perception about tooth color improvement and; and evaluate the safety and acceptability of these products.


The study was approved by local Ethical Committee under protocol number CAAE: 035541412.7.0000.5188, and each volunteer signed an informed consent form prior to enrollment in the study.

The sample size calculation was carried out based on a previous study. To detect the bleaching effect with a power of 80% and a one-tailed alpha error of 5%, a sample size of 20 subjects in each treatment group was necessary to detect a 20% difference between groups in shade change. A 20% addiction in subjects' number, taking into consideration potential loss or refusal, gave a total sample size of 75 subjects (25 in each group). The individuals were invited to participate in this clinical trial through advertisement exposed at the Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil.

Basing on eligibility criteria, 75 volunteers were selected to the trial and randomized to one of the three groups of treatment: G1- brushing teeth with a conventional toothpaste; G2- brushing teeth with a silica whitening dentifrice containing blue pigment; and G3 - at-home tooth bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide. The treatments will be detailed in another section. It was used a simple randomization to allocate the subjects, and a randomization table was prepared in the Excel Program by a member, not directly involved with the clinical part of the study.

To mask the products used in the treatment groups, each toothpaste type was enveloped with an adhesive tape of a different color and the seal of the bleaching gel syringe was removed. The same examiner responsible for subject allocation did this procedure. Thus, testing with the toothpastes was double-blinded, where both evaluator and subject did not know which toothpaste was being used.

The outcomes evaluated were: tooth shade, subjects' perception about tooth color appearance, and safety and acceptability of products tested, which were measured at baseline, 2-weeks, 3-weeks and 4-weeks of the beginning of treatments.

For statistical analysis, data were checked for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test, and then it was applied the appropriated parametric or non-parametric tests. Differences were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment


Tooth Discoloration


Conventional toothpaste, Whitening toothpaste, 10% carbamide peroxide




Federal University of Paraíba

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-04-18T17:38:22-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A dentifrice in paste form; usually contains binder, humectant, an abrasive, a detergent, flavoring agent and often caries preventives, anti-infective agents or other medicaments.

Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.

Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)

The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)

The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)

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