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This study seeks to establish the sensitivity and specificity of what appears to be a unique brainstem biomarker of Parkinson's Disease - an electrically induced olygosynaptic nasotrigeminal reflex response - in differentiating early stage PD from normal controls and from patients with various other neurodegenerative diseases. This study will additionally compare the biomarker to olfactory testing.
Parkinson's disease (PD), a devastating age-related disease that is clinically defined by its effects on the motor system, afflicts more than six million people worldwide, imposing enormous burdens on patients, relatives, caretakers, and society in general. Diagnostic errors are common, particularly as symptoms first arise. The most common misdiagnoses are Alzheimer's disease (AD), essential tremor, and vascular pseudo-Parkinson's Disease. An accurate diagnosis is typically made at a later stage of the disease when marked and irreversible damage has occurred within the motor control system of the brain. Sensitive and specific biomarkers of the early stages of PD are urgently needed. Identification of such markers is critical for the development and assessment of medications and other interventions designed to eliminate or reduce the gradual and irreversible decline of neurons involved in the disorder. This study seeks to establish the sensitivity and specificity of what appears to be a unique brainstem biomarker of Parkinson's Disease - an electrically induced trigeminal nerve blink reflex response - in differentiation of early stage PD from normal controls and such neurodegenerative diseases as early stage Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and diffuse Lewy Body disease. This study will additionally compare the biomarker to olfactory test results.
Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Electrical Brainstem Responses, Olfactory Tests, Visual Deprivation
Not yet recruiting
University of Pennsylvania
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-05-04T21:53:21-0400
The study aimed to determine the emotional reactivity of depressed patients to visual and olfactory stimuli in comparison with healthy volunteers.
There is convincing evidence from numerous studies using both psychophysical and electrophysiological approaches that olfaction is markedly reduced in Parkinson´s disease (PD). Data on th...
Amblyopia is an impairment in spatial vision caused by asymmetry in the quality of visual input across the two eyes during childhood. It is difficult to treat in adulthood because the visu...
The purpose of this research is to improve understanding of the molecular and functional properties of the human olfactory system. The specific aims are: - to determine the loca...
CMV lesions were found in the olfactory system of children with congenital CMV infection but no study has hitherto examined the impact of congenital CMV infection on olfaction. So the inve...
The habenula (Hb) plays important roles in emotion-related behaviors. Besides receiving inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia, Hb also gets inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Sensory r...
Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on neurocognitive performance. The King-Devick test (KDT), which tests speed and accuracy of number-reading, requires integrity of saccades, visual processing, ...
Excitotoxicity consists in a cascade of intracellular events initiated by an excessive release of glutamate and hyperactivation of glutamatergic receptors that is involved in several pathologies, incl...
Training and repeated exposure to odorants leads to enhanced olfactory sensitivity. So far, the efficacy of intensive olfactory training on olfactory function in healthy population and its underlying ...
Hyposmia is found in Parkinsonian patients decades before the onset of motor disorders. The same occurs with sleep disorders, especially infuencing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which affect a large...
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The term rhinencephalon is restricted to structures in the CNS receiving fibers from the olfactory bulb.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Parkinson's is a progressive neurological condition, affecting one person in every 500, 95% of which are over 40. It is caused by degeneration of more than 70% of the substantia nigra, which depletes the dopamine (the neurotransmitter involved in pro...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...