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An Oral Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Regimen to Prevent Bacteremia Following Dental Procedures

2016-05-27 13:08:22 | BioPortfolio

Summary

Although controversy exists regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk of infective endocarditis, expert committees continue to publish recommendations for antibiotic prophylactic regimens. Recently, the investigators have evaluated the efficacy of the intravenous administration of 1000/200 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate for the prevention of bacteraemia following dental extractions. The results of this study suggest that is highly effective, and that it might be considered a first-line choice for patients at high-risk for infective endocarditis who undergo dental procedures and for whom antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended. This new project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of oral amoxicillin/clavulanate in preventing post-dental extraction bloodstream infection.

Description

PURPOSE: Despite the controversy about the risk of developing bacterial endocarditis of oral origin, numerous Expert Committees in different countries continue to publish prophylactic regimens. To date, the literature is unclear about the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis in the prevention of bacteremia following dental procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic dosage with oral amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMX-CLV) in the prevention of bacteremia following dental extractions.

SELECTION OF THE STUDY GROUP AND STUDY DESIGN: The study group will comprise patients who, for behavioral reasons (autism, learning disabilities, phobias, etc.), will undergo dental extractions under general anesthesia in the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). The following exclusion criteria will be applied: age under 18 years; body weight under 40 kg; receipt of antibiotics in the previous 3 months; routine use of oral antiseptics; a history of allergy or intolerance to AMX or CLV; any type of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency; or any known risk factor for bacterial endocarditis. By applying these criteria, 150 patients will be selected and will be randomly distributed into 3 study groups: control group (receiving no prophylaxis), AMX-CLV group (receiving 2 g/125 mg oral AMX-CLV), and AMX group (receiving 2 g oral AMX).

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES FOR BLOOD CULTURE: To determine the prevalence of bacteremia, a peripheral venous blood sample (10 ml) will be drawn from each patient at the baseline (before any dental manipulation but after nasotracheal intubation) and 30 s, 15 min, and 1 h after the final dental extraction. Samples will be inoculated in BACTEC plus (Becton Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD) aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles, and will be processed in the Bactec 9240 (Becton Dickinson).

MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF BLOOD CULTURES: A Gram stain will be performed on each positive blood culture. The positive blood cultures in the aerobic media will be subcultured on blood agar and chocolate agar in an atmosphere of 5 to 10% carbon monoxide and on MacConkey agar under aerobic conditions. The same protocol will be used for the positive blood cultures in the anaerobic media, with subculture on Schaedler agar and incubation in an anaerobic atmosphere. The bacteria isolated will be identified by using the battery of biochemical tests provided with the Vitek system for Gram-positive bacteria, Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and obligate anaerobic bacteria. The viridans group streptococci will be classified into five groups, the Streptococcus mitis, S. anginosus, S. salivarius, S. mutans, and S. bovis groups, by applying the Ruoff criteria. Facklam's criteria will be used to identify unusual Streptococcus spp. and other gram-positive cocci in chains.

The subculture and further identification of the isolated bacteria will be performed by conventional microbiological techniques. The collection, handling, and transport of the blood samples for blood culture will be performed according to the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Prevention

Conditions

Bacteraemia

Intervention

Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate

Location

Santiago de Compostela University Hospital
Santiago de Compostela
Coruña
Spain
15782

Status

Not yet recruiting

Source

University of Santiago de Compostela

Results (where available)

View Results

Links

Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-05-27T13:08:22-0400

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate (see AMOXICILLIN), an aminopenicillin, and potassium clavulanate (see CLAVULANIC ACID), a beta-lactamase inhibitor, used to treat a broad-spectrum of bacterial infections, especially resistant strains.

A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.

Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.

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Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.

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