Endobronchial Valves in Inoperable Patients With Haemoptysis

2016-06-28 21:23:21 | BioPortfolio


Massive haemoptysis is a life-threatening condition which is commonly seen in patients who have previously had pulmonary tuberculosis. Various treatment options exist such as bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) or surgical resection of the affect lung region. However, BAE is not considered curative as there is often recurrence of haemoptysis. Furthermore, not all patients will be deemed suitable for surgical resection, leaving them with very few treatment options. A possible alternative intervention is the insertion of an endobronchial valve (EBV). It is speculated that blood will collect distal to the one way valve and a thrombus will be formed. There is currently no data describing the use of EBV for the treatment of massive haemoptysis. This RCT aims to explore the use and efficacy of EBV in the management of massive haemoptysis.


Massive haemoptysis commonly occurs in patients who have had tuberculosis. While surgical resection of the affected lung segment can be curative, a large majority of patients may not qualify for surgical intervention for a number of reasons. This leaves them with few options to manage their haemoptysis.

Many patients at Tygerberg Hospital have severely reduced cardiopulmonary reserves secondary to multiple episodes of pulmonary Tuberculosis and often present either a unilateral largely destroyed lung or bilateral disease, which make them unsuitable for surgery. For these unfortunate patients who do not qualify for surgery or repeat BAE, practically no treatment options exist, and a significant proportion die in hospital or after discharge from a recurrent episode of massive haemoptysis. For these patients the only option may be to block the bleeding bronchus (identified by the previous BAE or during bronchoscopy) with a balloon catheter (Fogarty catheter)(Freitag et al, 1994) or placement of haemostatic gauze or gel. All these procedures are, however, of limited benefit. Using a blocking device which could be deployed and left in place permanently or be removed if needed has become a new therapeutic concept. Dutau and colleagues reported the successful use of the endoscopic placement of a silicone Spigot in a 39-year-old-woman with massive haemoptysis which prevented alveolar inundation preceding and during the time of bronchial artery embolisation (Dutau et al, 2006).

Our institution has a long standing experience in massive haemoptysis, clinically and scientifically(van den Heuvel et al, 2007; Gross et al,2009). We evaluate about 80-100 patients with life threatening haemoptysis a year. Furthermore, we were involved in an early emphysema trial using the IBVEBV® (Intra-Bronchial Valve) of Spiration and have, therefore, the necessary experience with the valve implantation technique.

No data are available regarding the potential clinical use of endobronchial valves in patients with recurrence of haemoptysis after BAE in patients who are not candidate for surgery or BAE.

This study aims to investigate the use, therapeutic benefit and safety of IBV Zephyr® valves in inoperable patients with haemoptysis not responding to BAE or in cases where BAE is not considered feasible.

This is a prospective randomised intervention-control study, with patients allocated to either best medical care (control) or endobronchial valve (intervention) groups. The valves will be inserted via flexible bronchoscopy into the affected lung regions. The primary outcome measure is the time to resolution of massive haemoptysis. Secondary outcomes will include physical and lung function and the occurrence of complications resulting from the insertion of the EBV.

Statistical analysis will be performed blinded to patient grouping by a statistician, and both univariate and multivariate analyses will be performed using the appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests. Appropriate tests for categorical data (e.g. Chi-squared test) and continuous data (e.g. Kruskal-Wallis, and ANOVA) will be used. Logistic and linear regression modelling will be used for certain outcomes, and multivariate analysis will be performed using stepwise regression modelling and full modelling where appropriate.

Study Design

Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment




Insertion of endobronchial valve


Not yet recruiting


University of Stellenbosch

Results (where available)

View Results


Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-06-28T21:23:21-0400

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