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In this project, the investigators aim to investigate if daily carnitine supplementation could induce TMAO productivity of vegetarian gut microbiota and through which the TMAO producers might be disclosed.
Recently, plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) level has been proved to be a strong and independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. TMAO is formed through interaction between gut microflora and the ingested carnitine from food. Studies have shown that plasma TMAO concentration and TMAO productivity of gut microbiota in vegetarians are significantly lower than omnivores. This is probably due to a lack of carnitine in the diet of vegetarians. Therefore, it is worth investigating whether carnitine supplementation could induce TMAO productivity of human gut microbiota as well as to reveal TMAO producers from gut microflora. Therefore, the investigators plan to recruit 20 vegetarian and 10 omnivore volunteers to receive carnitine supplement for weeks, and study the change of plasma TMAO and gut microbiota. The plasma TMAO concentration will be measured by the LC-MS, and the gut microbiota composition will be analyzed by the next generation sequencing. Through bioinformatics analysis, the potential TMAO-producing bacteria might be discovered. The change of plasma TMAO level and gut microbiota composition after carnitine supplementation can provide more understanding on the relationship between carnitine supplement, TMAO and gut microflora.
Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics/Dynamics Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Basic Science
National Taiwan University Hospital
National Taiwan University Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-07-21T02:23:21-0400
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An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 22.214.171.124.
A high-affinity, ATP-binding, co-transporter for CARNITINE that is highly expressed in kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, and placental tissues. It transports one sodium ion with one carnitine molecule. It has a lower affinity for other organic cations and transports them independently of sodium. Mutations in the SLC22A5 gene are associated with systemic carnitine deficiency.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROXYLATION of gamma-butyrobetaine to L-CARNITINE. It is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-CARNITINE and is dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate; IRON; ASCORBIC ACID; and OXYGEN.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 126.96.36.199.
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